GNU Fortran supports a variety of extensions to, and dialects
of, the Fortran language.
Its primary base is the ANSI FORTRAN 77 standard, currently available on
the network at @url{http://kumo.swcp.com/fortran/F77_std/f77_std.html}
or in @url{ftp://ftp.ast.cam.ac.uk/pub/michael/}.
It offers some extensions that are popular among users
of UNIX f77
and f2c
compilers, some that
are popular among users of other compilers (such as Digital
products), some that are popular among users of the
newer Fortran 90 standard, and some that are introduced
by GNU Fortran.
Part of what defines a particular implementation of a Fortran
system, such as g77
, is the particular characteristics
of how it supports types, constants, and so on.
Much of this is left up to the implementation by the various
Fortran standards and accepted practice in the industry.
The GNU Fortran language is described below. Much of the material is organized along the same lines as the ANSI FORTRAN 77 standard itself.
See section Other Dialects, for information on features g77
supports
that are not part of the GNU Fortran language.
Note: This portion of the documentation definitely needs a lot of work!
The purpose of the following description of the GNU Fortran language is to promote wide portability of GNU Fortran programs.
GNU Fortran is an evolving language, due to the
fact that g77
itself is in beta test.
Some current features of the language might later
be redefined as dialects of Fortran supported by g77
when better ways to express these features are added to g77
,
for example.
Such features would still be supported by
g77
, but would be available only when
one or more command-line options were used.
The GNU Fortran language is distinct from the
GNU Fortran compilation system (g77
).
For example, g77
supports various dialects of
Fortran--in a sense, these are languages other than
GNU Fortran--though its primary
purpose is to support the GNU Fortran language, which also is
described in its documentation and by its implementation.
On the other hand, non-GNU compilers might offer support for the GNU Fortran language, and are encouraged to do so.
Currently, the GNU Fortran language is a fairly fuzzy object.
It represents something of a cross between what g77
accepts
when compiling using the prevailing defaults and what this
document describes as being part of the language.
Future versions of g77
are expected to clarify the
definition of the language in the documentation.
Often, this will mean adding new features to the language, in the form
of both new documentation and new support in g77
.
However, it might occasionally mean removing a feature
from the language itself to "dialect" status.
In such a case, the documentation be adjusted
to reflect the change, and g77
itself would likely be changed
to require one or more command-line options to continue supporting
the feature.
The development of the GNU Fortran language is intended to strike a balance between:
f77
.
One of the biggest practical challenges for the developers of the GNU Fortran language is meeting the sometimes contradictory demands of the above items.
For example, a feature might be widely used in one popular environment, but the exact same code that utilizes that feature might not work as expected--perhaps it might mean something entirely different--in another popular environment.
Traditionally, Fortran compilers--even portable ones--have solved this problem by simply offering the appropriate feature to users of the respective systems. This approach treats users of various Fortran systems and dialects as remote "islands", or camps, of programmers, and assume that these camps rarely come into contact with each other (or, especially, with each other's code).
Project GNU takes a radically different approach to software and language design, in that it assumes that users of GNU software do not necessarily care what kind of underlying system they are using, regardless of whether they are using software (at the user-interface level) or writing it (for example, writing Fortran or C code).
As such, GNU users rarely need consider just what kind of underlying hardware (or, in many cases, operating system) they are using at any particular time. They can use and write software designed for a general-purpose, widely portable, heteregenous environment--the GNU environment.
In line with this philosophy, GNU Fortran must evolve into a product that is widely ported and portable not only in the sense that it can be successfully built, installed, and run by users, but in the larger sense that its users can use it in the same way, and expect largely the same behaviors from it, regardless of the kind of system they are using at any particular time.
This approach constrains the solutions g77
can use to resolve
conflicts between various camps of Fortran users.
If these two camps disagree about what a particular construct should
mean, g77
cannot simply be changed to treat that particular construct as
having one meaning without comment (such as a warning), lest the users
expecting it to have the other meaning are unpleasantly surprised that
their code misbehaves when executed.
The use of the ASCII backslash character in character constants is
an excellent (and still somewhat unresolved) example of this kind of
controversy.
See section Backslash in Constants.
Other examples are likely to arise in the future, as g77
developers
strive to improve its ability to accept an ever-wider variety of existing
Fortran code without requiring significant modifications to said code.
Development of GNU Fortran is further constrained by the desire
to avoid requiring programmers to change their code.
This is important because it allows programmers, administrators,
and others to more faithfully evaluate and validate g77
(as an overall product and as new versions are distributed)
without having to support multiple versions of their programs
so that they continue to work the same way on their existing
systems (non-GNU perhaps, but possibly also earlier versions
of g77
).
GNU Fortran supports ANSI FORTRAN 77 with the following caveats.
In summary, the only ANSI FORTRAN 77 features g77
doesn't
support are those that are probably rarely used in actual code,
some of which are explicitly disallowed by the Fortran 90 standard.
g77
disallows passing of an external procedure
as an actual argument if the procedure's
type is declared CHARACTER*(*)
. For example:
CHARACTER*(*) CFUNC EXTERNAL CFUNC CALL FOO(CFUNC) END
It isn't clear whether the standard considers this conforming.
g77
disallows passing of a dummy procedure
as an actual argument if the procedure's
type is declared CHARACTER*(*)
.
SUBROUTINE BAR(CFUNC) CHARACTER*(*) CFUNC EXTERNAL CFUNC CALL FOO(CFUNC) END
It isn't clear whether the standard considers this conforming.
The DO
variable for an implied-DO
construct in a
DATA
statement may not be used as the DO
variable
for an outer implied-DO
construct. For example, this
fragment is disallowed by g77
:
DATA ((A(I, I), I= 1, 10), I= 1, 10) /.../
This also is disallowed by Fortran 90, as it offers no additional capabilities and would have a variety of possible meanings.
Note that it is very unlikely that any production Fortran code tries to use this unsupported construct.
An array element initializer in an implied-DO
construct in a
DATA
statement must contain at least one reference to the DO
variables of each outer implied-DO
construct. For example,
this fragment is disallowed by g77
:
DATA (A, I= 1, 1) /1./
This also is disallowed by Fortran 90, as FORTRAN 77's more permissive
requirements offer no additional capabilities.
However, g77
doesn't necessarily diagnose all cases
where this requirement is not met.
Note that it is very unlikely that any production Fortran code tries to use this unsupported construct.
(The following information augments or overrides the information in Section 1.4 of ANSI X3.9-1978 FORTRAN 77 in specifying the GNU Fortran language. Chapter 1 of that document otherwise serves as the basis for the relevant aspects of GNU Fortran.)
The definition of the GNU Fortran language is akin to that of the ANSI FORTRAN 77 language in that it does not generally require conforming implementations to diagnose cases where programs do not conform to the language.
However, g77
as a compiler is being developed in a way that
is intended to enable it to diagnose such cases in an easy-to-understand
manner.
A program that conforms to the GNU Fortran language should, when
compiled, linked, and executed using a properly installed g77
system, perform as described by the GNU Fortran language definition.
Reasons for different behavior include, among others:
g77
.
Despite these "loopholes", the availability of a clear specification
of the language of programs submitted to g77
, as this document
is intended to provide, is considered an important aspect of providing
a robust, clean, predictable Fortran implementation.
The definition of the GNU Fortran language, while having no special
legal status, can therefore be viewed as a sort of contract, or agreement.
This agreement says, in essence, "if you write a program in this language,
and run it in an environment (such as a g77
system) that supports
this language, the program should behave in a largely predictable way".
(The following information augments or overrides the information in Section 1.5 of ANSI X3.9-1978 FORTRAN 77 in specifying the GNU Fortran language. Chapter 1 of that document otherwise serves as the basis for the relevant aspects of GNU Fortran.)
In this chapter, "must" denotes a requirement, "may" denotes permission, and "must not" and "may not" denote prohibition. Terms such as "might", "should", and "can" generally add little or nothing in the way of weight to the GNU Fortran language itself, but are used to explain or illustrate the language.
For example:
"The FROBNITZ
statement must precede all executable
statements in a program unit, and may not specify any dummy
arguments. It may specify local or common variables and arrays.
Its use should be limited to portions of the program designed to
be non-portable and system-specific, because it might cause the
containing program unit to behave quite differently on different
systems."
Insofar as the GNU Fortran language is specified,
the requirements and permissions denoted by the above sample statement
are limited to the placement of the statement and the kinds of
things it may specify.
The rest of the statement--the content regarding non-portable portions
of the program and the differing behavior of program units containing
the FROBNITZ
statement--does not pertain the GNU Fortran
language itself.
That content offers advice and warnings about the FROBNITZ
statement.
Remember: The GNU Fortran language definition specifies both what constitutes a valid GNU Fortran program and how, given such a program, a valid GNU Fortran implementation is to interpret that program.
It is not incumbent upon a valid GNU Fortran implementation to behave in any particular way, any consistent way, or any predictable way when it is asked to interpret input that is not a valid GNU Fortran program.
Such input is said to have undefined behavior when interpreted by a valid GNU Fortran implementation, though an implementation may choose to specify behaviors for some cases of inputs that are not valid GNU Fortran programs.
Other notation used herein is that of the GNU texinfo format, which is used to generate printed hardcopy, on-line hypertext (Info), and on-line HTML versions, all from a single source document. This notation is used as follows:
COMMON
, INTEGER
, and
BLOCK DATA
.
Note that, in practice, many Fortran programs are written
in lowercase--uppercase is used in this manual as a
means to readily distinguish keywords and sample Fortran-related
text from the prose in this document.
INTEGER ivar
statement specifies that
ivar is a variable or array of type INTEGER
."
In the above example, any valid text may be substituted for
the metasyntactic variable ivar to make the statement
apply to a specific instance, as long as the same text is
substituted for both occurrences of ivar.
INTEGER(KIND=1)
)
and the more traditional, less portably concise nomenclature
(such as INTEGER*4
).
(The following information augments or overrides the information in Chapter 2 of ANSI X3.9-1978 FORTRAN 77 in specifying the GNU Fortran language. Chapter 2 of that document otherwise serves as the basis for the relevant aspects of GNU Fortran.)
(Corresponds to Section 2.2 of ANSI X3.9-1978 FORTRAN 77.)
In GNU Fortran, a symbolic name is at least one character long,
and has no arbitrary upper limit on length.
However, names of entities requiring external linkage (such as
external functions, external subroutines, and COMMON
areas)
might be restricted to some arbitrary length by the system.
Such a restriction is no more constrained than that of one
through six characters.
Underscores (`_') are accepted in symbol names after the first character (which must be a letter).
(Corresponds to Section 2.3 of ANSI X3.9-1978 FORTRAN 77.)
Use of an exclamation point (`!') to begin a trailing comment (a comment that extends to the end of the same source line) is permitted under the following conditions:
Use of a semicolon (`;') as a statement separator is permitted under the following conditions:
IF
statement nor a non-construct
WHERE
statement (a Fortran 90 feature) may be
followed (in the same, possibly continued, line) by
a semicolon used as a statement separator.
This restriction avoids the confusion
that can result when reading a line such as:
IF (VALIDP) CALL FOO; CALL BARSome readers might think the `CALL BAR' is executed only if `VALIDP' is
.TRUE.
, while others might
assume its execution is unconditional.
(At present, g77
does not diagnose code that
violates this restriction.)
(Corresponds to Section 2.9 of ANSI X3.9-1978 FORTRAN 77.)
Included in the list of entities that have a scope of a program unit are construct names (a Fortran 90 feature). See section Construct Names, for more information.
(The following information augments or overrides the information in Chapter 3 of ANSI X3.9-1978 FORTRAN 77 in specifying the GNU Fortran language. Chapter 3 of that document otherwise serves as the basis for the relevant aspects of GNU Fortran.)
(Corresponds to Section 3.1 of ANSI X3.9-1978 FORTRAN 77.)
Letters include uppercase letters (the twenty-six characters of the English alphabet) and lowercase letters (their lowercase equivalent). Generally, lowercase letters may be used in place of uppercase letters, though in character and hollerith constants, they are distinct.
Special characters include:
Note that this document refers to SPC as space, while X3.9-1978 FORTRAN 77 refers to it as blank.
(Corresponds to Section 3.2 of ANSI X3.9-1978 FORTRAN 77.)
The way a Fortran compiler views source files depends entirely on the implementation choices made for the compiler, since those choices are explicitly left to the implementation by the published Fortran standards.
The GNU Fortran language mandates a view applicable to UNIX-like text files--files that are made up of an arbitrary number of lines, each with an arbitrary number of characters (sometimes called stream-based files).
This view does not apply to types of files that are specified as having a particular number of characters on every single line (sometimes referred to as record-based files).
Because a "line in a program unit is a sequence of 72 characters", to quote X3.9-1978, the GNU Fortran language specifies that a stream-based text file is translated to GNU Fortran lines as follows:
EOF
) also serves to end the line
of text that precedes it (and that does not contain a newline).
For the purposes of the remainder of this description of the GNU Fortran language, the translation described above has already taken place, unless otherwise specified.
The result of the above translation is that the source file appears, in terms of the remainder of this description of the GNU Fortran language, as if it had an arbitrary number of 72-character lines, each character being among the GNU Fortran character set.
For example, if the source file itself has two newlines in a row, the second newline becomes, after the above translation, a single line containing 72 spaces.
(Corresponds to Section 3.2.3 of ANSI X3.9-1978 FORTRAN 77.)
A continuation line is any line that both
A continuation character is any character of the GNU Fortran character set other than space (SPC) or zero (`0') in column 6, or a digit (`0' through `9') in column 7 through 72 of a line that has only spaces to the left of that digit.
The continuation character is ignored as far as the content of the statement is concerned.
The GNU Fortran language places no limit on the number of continuation lines in a statement. In practice, the limit depends on a variety of factors, such as available memory, statement content, and so on, but no GNU Fortran system may impose an arbitrary limit.
(Corresponds to Section 3.3 of ANSI X3.9-1978 FORTRAN 77.)
Statements may be written using an arbitrary number of continuation lines.
Statements may be separated using the semicolon (`;'), except
that the logical IF
and non-construct WHERE
statements
may not be separated from subsequent statements using only a semicolon
as statement separator.
The END PROGRAM
, END SUBROUTINE
, END FUNCTION
,
and END BLOCK DATA
statements are alternatives to the END
statement.
These alternatives may be written as normal statements--they are not
subject to the restrictions of the END
statement.
However, no statement other than END
may have an initial line
that appears to be an END
statement--even END PROGRAM
,
for example, must not be written as:
END &PROGRAM
(Corresponds to Section 3.4 of ANSI X3.9-1978 FORTRAN 77.)
A statement separated from its predecessor via a semicolon may be labeled as follows:
A statement may have only one label defined for it.
(Corresponds to Section 3.5 of ANSI X3.9-1978 FORTRAN 77.)
Generally, DATA
statements may precede executable statements.
However, specification statements pertaining to any entities
initialized by a DATA
statement must precede that DATA
statement.
For example,
after `DATA I/1/', `INTEGER I' is not permitted, but
`INTEGER J' is permitted.
The last line of a program unit may be an END
statement,
or may be:
END PROGRAM
statement, if the program unit is a main program.
END SUBROUTINE
statement, if the program unit is a subroutine.
END FUNCTION
statement, if the program unit is a function.
END BLOCK DATA
statement, if the program unit is a block data.
Additional source text may be included in the processing of
the source file via the INCLUDE
directive:
INCLUDE filename
The source text to be included is identified by filename, which is a literal GNU Fortran character constant. The meaning and interpretation of filename depends on the implementation, but typically is a filename.
(g77
treats it as a filename that it searches for
in the current directory and/or directories specified
via the `-I' command-line option.)
The effect of the INCLUDE
directive is as if the
included text directly replaced the directive in the source
file prior to interpretation of the program.
Included text may itself use INCLUDE
.
The depth of nested INCLUDE
references depends on
the implementation, but typically is a positive integer.
This virtual replacement treats the statements and INCLUDE
directives in the included text as syntactically distinct from
those in the including text.
Therefore, the first non-comment line of the included text
must not be a continuation line.
The included text must therefore have, after the non-comment
lines, either an initial line (statement), an INCLUDE
directive, or nothing (the end of the included text).
Similarly, the including text may end the INCLUDE
directive with a semicolon or the end of the line, but it
cannot follow an INCLUDE
directive at the end of its
line with a continuation line.
Thus, the last statement in an included text may not be
continued.
Any statements between two INCLUDE
directives on the
same line are treated as if they appeared in between the
respective included texts.
For example:
INCLUDE 'A'; PRINT *, 'B'; INCLUDE 'C'; END PROGRAM
If the text included by `INCLUDE 'A'' constitutes a `PRINT *, 'A'' statement and the text included by `INCLUDE 'C'' constitutes a `PRINT *, 'C'' statement, then the output of the above sample program would be
A B C
(with suitable allowances for how an implementation defines its handling of output).
Included text must not include itself directly or indirectly, regardless of whether the filename used to reference the text is the same.
Note that INCLUDE
is not a statement.
As such, it is neither a non-executable or executable
statement.
However, if the text it includes constitutes one or more
executable statements, then the placement of INCLUDE
is subject to effectively the same restrictions as those
on executable statements.
An INCLUDE
directive may be continued across multiple
lines as if it were a statement.
This permits long names to be used for filename.
(The following information augments or overrides the information in Chapter 4 of ANSI X3.9-1978 FORTRAN 77 in specifying the GNU Fortran language. Chapter 4 of that document otherwise serves as the basis for the relevant aspects of GNU Fortran.)
To more concisely express the appropriate types for
entities, this document uses the more concise
Fortran 90 nomenclature such as INTEGER(KIND=1)
instead of the more traditional, but less portably concise,
byte-size-based nomenclature such as INTEGER*4
,
wherever reasonable.
When referring to generic types--in contexts where the
specific precision and range of a type are not important--this
document uses the generic type names INTEGER
, LOGICAL
,
REAL
, COMPLEX
, and CHARACTER
.
In some cases, the context requires specification of a particular type. This document uses the `KIND=' notation to accomplish this throughout, sometimes supplying the more traditional notation for clarification, though the traditional notation might not work the same way on all GNU Fortran implementations.
Use of `KIND=' makes this document more concise because
g77
is able to define values for `KIND=' that
have the same meanings on all systems, due to the way the
Fortran 90 standard specifies these values are to be used.
(In particular, that standard permits an implementation to
arbitrarily assign nonnegative values.
There are four distinct sets of assignments: one to the CHARACTER
type; one to the INTEGER
type; one to the LOGICAL
type;
and the fourth to both the REAL
and COMPLEX
types.
Implementations are free to assign these values in any order,
leave gaps in the ordering of assignments, and assign more than
one value to a representation.)
This makes `KIND=' values superior to the values used in non-standard statements such as `INTEGER*4', because the meanings of the values in those statements vary from machine to machine, compiler to compiler, even operating system to operating system.
However, use of `KIND=' is not generally recommended
when writing portable code (unless, for example, the code is
going to be compiled only via g77
, which is a widely
ported compiler).
GNU Fortran does not yet have adequate language constructs to
permit use of `KIND=' in a fashion that would make the
code portable to Fortran 90 implementations; and, this construct
is known to not be accepted by many popular FORTRAN 77
implementations, so it cannot be used in code that is to be ported
to those.
The distinction here is that this document is able to use specific values for `KIND=' to concisely document the types of various operations and operands.
A Fortran program should use the FORTRAN 77 designations for the
appropriate GNU Fortran types--such as INTEGER
for
INTEGER(KIND=1)
, REAL
for REAL(KIND=1)
,
and DOUBLE COMPLEX
for COMPLEX(KIND=2)
---and,
where no such designations exist, make use of appropriate
techniques (preprocessor macros, parameters, and so on)
to specify the types in a fashion that may be easily adjusted
to suit each particular implementation to which the program
is ported.
(These types generally won't need to be adjusted for ports of
g77
.)
Further details regarding GNU Fortran data types and constants are provided below.
(Corresponds to Section 4.1 of ANSI X3.9-1978 FORTRAN 77.)
GNU Fortran supports these types:
INTEGER
)
REAL
)
COMPLEX
)
LOGICAL
)
CHARACTER
)
(The types numbered 1 through 6 above are standard FORTRAN 77 types.)
The generic types shown above are referred to in this document using only their generic type names. Such references usually indicate that any specific type (kind) of that generic type is valid.
For example, a context described in this document as accepting
the COMPLEX
type also is likely to accept the
DOUBLE COMPLEX
type.
The GNU Fortran language supports three ways to specify a specific kind of a generic type.
The GNU Fortran language supports two uses of the keyword
DOUBLE
to specify a specific kind of type:
DOUBLE PRECISION
, equivalent to REAL(KIND=2)
DOUBLE COMPLEX
, equivalent to COMPLEX(KIND=2)
Use one of the above forms where a type name is valid.
While use of this notation is popular, it doesn't scale well in a language or dialect rich in intrinsic types, as is the case for the GNU Fortran language (especially planned future versions of it).
After all, one rarely sees type names such as `DOUBLE INTEGER',
`QUADRUPLE REAL', or `QUARTER INTEGER'.
Instead, INTEGER*8
, REAL*16
, and INTEGER*1
often are substituted for these, respectively, even though they
do not always have the same meanings on all systems.
(And, the fact that `DOUBLE REAL' does not exist as such
is an inconsistency.)
Therefore, this document uses "double notation" only on occasion for the benefit of those readers who are accustomed to it.
The following notation specifies the storage size for a type:
generic-type*n
generic-type must be a generic type--one of
INTEGER
, REAL
, COMPLEX
, LOGICAL
,
or CHARACTER
.
n must be one or more digits comprising a decimal
integer number greater than zero.
Use the above form where a type name is valid.
The `*n' notation specifies that the amount of storage
occupied by variables and array elements of that type is n
times the storage occupied by a CHARACTER*1
variable.
This notation might indicate a different degree of precision and/or range for such variables and array elements, and the functions that return values of types using this notation. It does not limit the precision or range of values of that type in any particular way--use explicit code to do that.
Further, the GNU Fortran language requires no particular values
for n to be supported by an implementation via the `*n'
notation.
g77
supports INTEGER*1
(as INTEGER(KIND=3)
)
on all systems, for example,
but not all implementations are required to do so, and g77
is known to not support REAL*1
on most (or all) systems.
As a result, except for generic-type of CHARACTER
,
uses of this notation should be limited to isolated
portions of a program that are intended to handle system-specific
tasks and are expected to be non-portable.
(Standard FORTRAN 77 supports the `*n' notation for
only CHARACTER
, where it signifies not only the amount
of storage occupied, but the number of characters in entities
of that type.
However, almost all Fortran compilers have supported this
notation for generic types, though with a variety of meanings
for n.)
Specifications of types using the `*n' notation always are interpreted as specifications of the appropriate types described in this document using the `KIND=n' notation, described below.
While use of this notation is popular, it doesn't serve well in the context of a widely portable dialect of Fortran, such as the GNU Fortran language.
For example, even on one particular machine, two or more popular
Fortran compilers might well disagree on the size of a type
declared INTEGER*2
or REAL*16
.
Certainly there
is known to be disagreement over such things among Fortran
compilers on different systems.
Further, this notation offers no elegant way to specify sizes
that are not even multiples of the "byte size" typically
designated by INTEGER*1
.
Use of "absurd" values (such as INTEGER*1000
) would
certainly be possible, but would perhaps be stretching the original
intent of this notation beyond the breaking point in terms
of widespread readability of documentation and code making use
of it.
Therefore, this document uses "star notation" only on occasion for the benefit of those readers who are accustomed to it.
The following notation specifies the kind-type selector of a type:
generic-type(KIND=n)
Use the above form where a type name is valid.
generic-type must be a generic type--one of
INTEGER
, REAL
, COMPLEX
, LOGICAL
,
or CHARACTER
.
n must be an integer initialization expression that
is a positive, nonzero value.
Programmers are discouraged from writing these values directly
into their code.
Future versions of the GNU Fortran language will offer
facilities that will make the writing of code portable
to g77
and Fortran 90 implementations simpler.
However, writing code that ports to existing FORTRAN 77 implementations depends on avoiding the `KIND=' construct.
The `KIND=' construct is thus useful in the context of GNU Fortran for two reasons:
The values of n in the GNU Fortran language are assigned using a scheme that:
The assignment system accomplishes this by assigning to each "fundamental meaning" of a specific type a unique prime number. Combinations of fundamental meanings--for example, a type that is two times the size of some other type--are assigned values of n that are the products of the values for those fundamental meanings.
A prime value of n is never given more than one fundamental meaning, to avoid situations where some code or system cannot reasonably provide those meanings in the form of a single type.
The values of n assigned so far are:
KIND=0
INTEGER(KIND=0)
and
denotes the INTEGER
type that has the smallest
storage size that holds a pointer on the system.
A pointer representable by this type is capable of uniquely
addressing a CHARACTER*1
variable, array, array element,
or substring.
(Typically this is equivalent to INTEGER*4
or,
on 64-bit systems, INTEGER*8
.
In a compatible C implementation, it typically would
be the same size and semantics of the C type void *
.)
KIND=1
REAL
, INTEGER
, LOGICAL
, COMPLEX
,
and CHARACTER
, as appropriate.
These are the "default" types described in the Fortran 90 standard,
though that standard does not assign any particular `KIND='
value to these types.
(Typically, these are REAL*4
, INTEGER*4
,
LOGICAL*4
, and COMPLEX*8
.)
KIND=2
REAL(KIND=2)
is DOUBLE PRECISION
(typically REAL*8
),
COMPLEX(KIND=2)
is DOUBLE COMPLEX
(typically COMPLEX*16
),
These are the "double precision" types described in the Fortran 90
standard,
though that standard does not assign any particular `KIND='
value to these types.
n of 4 thus corresponds to types that occupy four times
as much storage as the default types, n of 8 to types that
occupy eight times as much storage, and so on.
The INTEGER(KIND=2)
and LOGICAL(KIND=2)
types
are not necessarily supported by every GNU Fortran implementation.
KIND=3
CHARACTER
type,
which is the same effective type as CHARACTER(KIND=1)
(making that type effectively the same as CHARACTER(KIND=3)
).
(Typically, these are INTEGER*1
and LOGICAL*1
.)
n of 6 thus corresponds to types that occupy twice as
much storage as the n=3 types, n of 12 to types
that occupy four times as much storage, and so on.
These are not necessarily supported by every GNU Fortran
implementation.
KIND=5
INTEGER*2
and LOGICAL*2
.)
n of 25 thus corresponds to types that occupy one-quarter
as much storage as the default types.
These are not necessarily supported by every GNU Fortran
implementation.
Note that these are proposed correspondences and might change
in future versions of g77
---avoid writing code depending
on them while g77
, and therefore the GNU Fortran language
it defines, is in beta testing.
Values not specified in the above list are reserved to future versions of the GNU Fortran language.
Implementation-dependent meanings will be assigned new, unique prime numbers so as to not interfere with other implementation-dependent meanings, and offer the possibility of increasing the portability of code depending on such types by offering support for them in other GNU Fortran implementations.
Other meanings that might be given unique values are:
INTEGER
types to occupy the amount of storage
that would be needed for INTEGER(KIND=2)
types, but the
range remains that of INTEGER(KIND=1)
.
INTEGER(KIND=1)
.
These could permit, conceptually, use of portable code and
implementations on data files written by existing systems.
Future prime numbers should be given meanings in as incremental a fashion as possible, to allow for flexibility and expressiveness in combining types.
For example, instead of defining a prime number for little-endian IEEE doubles, one prime number might be assigned the meaning "little-endian", another the meaning "IEEE double", and the value of n for a little-endian IEEE double would thus naturally be the product of those two respective assigned values. (It could even be reasonable to have IEEE values result from the products of prime values denoting exponent and fraction sizes and meanings, hidden bit usage, availability and representations of special values such as subnormals, infinities, and Not-A-Numbers (NaNs), and so on.)
This assignment mechanism, while not inherently required for future versions of the GNU Fortran language, is worth using because it could ease management of the "space" of supported types much easier in the long run.
The above approach suggests a mechanism for specifying inheritance of intrinsic (built-in) types for an entire, widely portable product line. It is certainly reasonable that, unlike programmers of other languages offering inheritance mechanisms that employ verbose names for classes and subclasses, along with graphical browsers to elucidate the relationships, Fortran programmers would employ a mechanism that works by multiplying prime numbers together and finding the prime factors of such products.
Most of the advantages for the above scheme have been explained above. One disadvantage is that it could lead to the defining, by the GNU Fortran language, of some fairly large prime numbers. This could lead to the GNU Fortran language being declared "munitions" by the United States Department of Defense.
(Corresponds to Section 4.2 of ANSI X3.9-1978 FORTRAN 77.)
A typeless constant has one of the following forms:
'binary-digits'B 'octal-digits'O 'hexadecimal-digits'Z 'hexadecimal-digits'X
binary-digits, octal-digits, and hexadecimal-digits are nonempty strings of characters in the set `01', `01234567', and `0123456789ABCDEFabcdef', respectively. (The value for `A' (and `a') is 10, for `B' and `b' is 11, and so on.)
Typeless constants have values that depend on the context in which they are used.
All other constants, called typed constants, are interpreted--converted to internal form--according to their inherent type. Thus, context is never a determining factor for the type, and hence the interpretation, of a typed constant. (All constants in the ANSI FORTRAN 77 language are typed constants.)
For example, `1' is always type INTEGER(KIND=1)
in GNU
Fortran (called default INTEGER in Fortran 90),
`9.435784839284958' is always type REAL(KIND=1)
(even if the
additional precision specified is lost, and even when used in a
REAL(KIND=2)
context), `1E0' is always type REAL(KIND=2)
,
and `1D0' is always type REAL(KIND=2)
.
(Corresponds to Section 4.3 of ANSI X3.9-1978 FORTRAN 77.)
An integer constant also may have one of the following forms:
B'binary-digits' O'octal-digits' Z'hexadecimal-digits' X'hexadecimal-digits'
binary-digits, octal-digits, and hexadecimal-digits are nonempty strings of characters in the set `01', `01234567', and `0123456789ABCDEFabcdef', respectively. (The value for `A' (and `a') is 10, for `B' and `b' is 11, and so on.)
(Corresponds to Section 4.8 of ANSI X3.9-1978 FORTRAN 77.)
A character constant may be delimited by a pair of double quotes (`"') instead of apostrophes. In this case, an apostrophe within the constant represents a single apostrophe, while a double quote is represented in the source text of the constant by two consecutive double quotes with no intervening blanks.
A character constant may be empty (have a length of zero).
A character constant may include a substring specification, The value of such a constant is the value of the substring--for example, the value of `'hello'(3:5)' is the same as the value of `'llo''.
(The following information augments or overrides the information in Chapter 6 of ANSI X3.9-1978 FORTRAN 77 in specifying the GNU Fortran language. Chapter 6 of that document otherwise serves as the basis for the relevant aspects of GNU Fortran.)
%LOC()
Construct%LOC(arg)
The %LOC()
construct is an expression
that yields the value of the location of its argument,
arg, in memory.
The size of the type of the expression depends on the system--typically,
it is equivalent to either INTEGER(KIND=1)
or INTEGER(KIND=2)
,
though it is actually type INTEGER(KIND=0)
.
The argument to %LOC()
must be suitable as the
left-hand side of an assignment statement.
That is, it may not be a general expression involving
operators such as addition, subtraction, and so on,
nor may it be a constant.
Use of %LOC()
is recommended only for code that
is accessing facilities outside of GNU Fortran, such as
operating system or windowing facilities.
It is best to constrain such uses to isolated portions of
a program--portions that deal specifically and exclusively
with low-level, system-dependent facilities.
Such portions might well provide a portable interface for
use by the program as a whole, but are themselves not
portable, and should be thoroughly tested each time they
are rebuilt using a new compiler or version of a compiler.
Do not depend on %LOC()
returning a pointer that
can be safely used to define (change) the argument.
While this might work in some circumstances, it is hard
to predict whether it will continue to work when a program
(that works using this unsafe behavior)
is recompiled using different command-line options or
a different version of g77
.
Generally, %LOC()
is safe when used as an argument
to a procedure that makes use of the value of the corresponding
dummy argument only during its activation, and only when
such use is restricted to referencing (reading) the value
of the argument to %LOC()
.
Implementation Note: Currently, g77
passes
arguments (those not passed using a construct such as %VAL()
)
by reference or descriptor, depending on the type of
the actual argument.
Thus, given `INTEGER I', `CALL FOO(I)' would
seem to mean the same thing as `CALL FOO(%LOC(I))', and
in fact might compile to identical code.
However, `CALL FOO(%LOC(I))' emphatically means "pass the
address of `I' in memory".
While `CALL FOO(I)' might use that same approach in a
particular version of g77
, another version or compiler
might choose a different implementation, such as copy-in/copy-out,
to effect the desired behavior--and which will therefore not
necessarily compile to the same code as would `CALL FOO(%LOC(I))'
using the same version or compiler.
See section Debugging and Interfacing, for detailed information on
how this particular version of g77
implements various
constructs.
(The following information augments or overrides the information in Chapter 8 of ANSI X3.9-1978 FORTRAN 77 in specifying the GNU Fortran language. Chapter 8 of that document otherwise serves as the basis for the relevant aspects of GNU Fortran.)
NAMELIST
Statement
The NAMELIST
statement, and related I/O constructs, are
supported by the GNU Fortran language in essentially the same
way as they are by f2c
.
DOUBLE COMPLEX
Statement
DOUBLE COMPLEX
is a type-statement (and type) that
specifies the type COMPLEX(KIND=2)
in GNU Fortran.
(The following information augments or overrides the information in Chapter 11 of ANSI X3.9-1978 FORTRAN 77 in specifying the GNU Fortran language. Chapter 11 of that document otherwise serves as the basis for the relevant aspects of GNU Fortran.)
The DO WHILE
statement, a feature of both the MIL-STD 1753 and
Fortran 90 standards, is provided by the GNU Fortran language.
The END DO
statement is provided by the GNU Fortran language.
This statement is used in one of two ways:
DO
loop started with a DO
statement
that specifies no termination label.
DO
loops, all of which start with a
DO
statement that specify the label defined for the
END DO
statement.
This kind of END DO
statement is merely a synonym for
CONTINUE
, except it is permitted only when the statement
is labeled and a target of one or more labeled DO
loops.
It is expected that this use of END DO
will be removed from
the GNU Fortran language in the future, though it is likely that
it will long be supported by g77
as a dialect form.
The GNU Fortran language supports construct names as defined by the Fortran 90 standard. These names are local to the program unit and are defined as follows:
construct-name: block-statement
Here, construct-name is the construct name itself;
its definition is connoted by the single colon (`:'); and
block-statement is an IF
, DO
,
or SELECT CASE
statement that begins a block.
A block that is given a construct name must also specify the same construct name in its termination statement:
END block construct-name
Here, block must be IF
, DO
, or SELECT
,
as appropriate.
CYCLE
and EXIT
Statements
The CYCLE
and EXIT
statements specify that
the remaining statements in the current iteration of a
particular active (enclosing) DO
loop are to be skipped.
CYCLE
specifies that these statements are skipped,
but the END DO
statement that marks the end of the
DO
loop be executed--that is, the next iteration,
if any, is to be started.
If the statement marking the end of the DO
loop is
not END DO
---in other words, if the loop is not
a block DO
---the CYCLE
statement does not
execute that statement, but does start the next iteration (if any).
EXIT
specifies that the loop specified by the
DO
construct is terminated.
The DO
loop affected by CYCLE
and EXIT
is the innermost enclosing DO
loop when the following
forms are used:
CYCLE EXIT
Otherwise, the following forms specify the construct name
of the pertinent DO
loop:
CYCLE construct-name EXIT construct-name
CYCLE
and EXIT
can be viewed as glorified GO TO
statements.
However, they cannot be easily thought of as GO TO
statements
in obscure cases involving FORTRAN 77 loops.
For example:
DO 10 I = 1, 5 DO 10 J = 1, 5 IF (J .EQ. 5) EXIT DO 10 K = 1, 5 IF (K .EQ. 3) CYCLE 10 PRINT *, 'I=', I, ' J=', J, ' K=', K 20 CONTINUE
In particular, neither the EXIT
nor CYCLE
statements
above are equivalent to a GO TO
statement to either label
`10' or `20'.
To understand the effect of CYCLE
and EXIT
in the
above fragment, it is helpful to first translate it to its equivalent
using only block DO
loops:
DO I = 1, 5 DO J = 1, 5 IF (J .EQ. 5) EXIT DO K = 1, 5 IF (K .EQ. 3) CYCLE 10 PRINT *, 'I=', I, ' J=', J, ' K=', K END DO END DO END DO 20 CONTINUE
Adding new labels allows translation of CYCLE
and EXIT
to GO TO
so they may be more easily understood by programmers
accustomed to FORTRAN coding:
DO I = 1, 5 DO J = 1, 5 IF (J .EQ. 5) GOTO 18 DO K = 1, 5 IF (K .EQ. 3) GO TO 12 10 PRINT *, 'I=', I, ' J=', J, ' K=', K 12 END DO END DO 18 END DO 20 CONTINUE
Thus, the CYCLE
statement in the innermost loop skips over
the PRINT
statement as it begins the next iteration of the
loop, while the EXIT
statement in the middle loop ends that
loop but not the outermost loop.
(The following information augments or overrides the information in Chapter 15 of ANSI X3.9-1978 FORTRAN 77 in specifying the GNU Fortran language. Chapter 15 of that document otherwise serves as the basis for the relevant aspects of GNU Fortran.)
%VAL()
Construct%VAL(arg)
The %VAL()
construct specifies that an argument,
arg, is to be passed by value, instead of by reference
or descriptor.
%VAL()
is restricted to actual arguments in
invocations of external procedures.
Use of %VAL()
is recommended only for code that
is accessing facilities outside of GNU Fortran, such as
operating system or windowing facilities.
It is best to constrain such uses to isolated portions of
a program--portions the deal specifically and exclusively
with low-level, system-dependent facilities.
Such portions might well provide a portable interface for
use by the program as a whole, but are themselves not
portable, and should be thoroughly tested each time they
are rebuilt using a new compiler or version of a compiler.
Implementation Note: Currently, g77
passes
all arguments either by reference or by descriptor.
Thus, use of %VAL()
tends to be restricted to cases
where the called procedure is written in a language other
than Fortran that supports call-by-value semantics.
(C is an example of such a language.)
See section Procedures (SUBROUTINE and FUNCTION),
for detailed information on
how this particular version of g77
passes arguments
to procedures.
%REF()
Construct%REF(arg)
The %REF()
construct specifies that an argument,
arg, is to be passed by reference, instead of by
value or descriptor.
%REF()
is restricted to actual arguments in
invocations of external procedures.
Use of %REF()
is recommended only for code that
is accessing facilities outside of GNU Fortran, such as
operating system or windowing facilities.
It is best to constrain such uses to isolated portions of
a program--portions the deal specifically and exclusively
with low-level, system-dependent facilities.
Such portions might well provide a portable interface for
use by the program as a whole, but are themselves not
portable, and should be thoroughly tested each time they
are rebuilt using a new compiler or version of a compiler.
Do not depend on %REF()
supplying a pointer to the
procedure being invoked.
While that is a likely implementation choice, other
implementation choices are available that preserve Fortran
pass-by-reference semantics without passing a pointer to
the argument, arg.
(For example, a copy-in/copy-out implementation.)
Implementation Note: Currently, g77
passes
all arguments
(other than variables and arrays of type CHARACTER
)
by reference.
Future versions of, or dialects supported by, g77
might
not pass CHARACTER
functions by reference.
Thus, use of %REF()
tends to be restricted to cases
where arg is type CHARACTER
but the called
procedure accesses it via a means other than the method
used for Fortran CHARACTER
arguments.
See section Procedures (SUBROUTINE and FUNCTION), for detailed information on
how this particular version of g77
passes arguments
to procedures.
%DESCR()
Construct%DESCR(arg)
The %DESCR()
construct specifies that an argument,
arg, is to be passed by descriptor, instead of by
value or reference.
%DESCR()
is restricted to actual arguments in
invocations of external procedures.
Use of %DESCR()
is recommended only for code that
is accessing facilities outside of GNU Fortran, such as
operating system or windowing facilities.
It is best to constrain such uses to isolated portions of
a program--portions the deal specifically and exclusively
with low-level, system-dependent facilities.
Such portions might well provide a portable interface for
use by the program as a whole, but are themselves not
portable, and should be thoroughly tested each time they
are rebuilt using a new compiler or version of a compiler.
Do not depend on %DESCR()
supplying a pointer
and/or a length passed by value
to the procedure being invoked.
While that is a likely implementation choice, other
implementation choices are available that preserve the
pass-by-reference semantics without passing a pointer to
the argument, arg.
(For example, a copy-in/copy-out implementation.)
And, future versions of g77
might change the
way descriptors are implemented, such as passing a
single argument pointing to a record containing the
pointer/length information instead of passing that same
information via two arguments as it currently does.
Implementation Note: Currently, g77
passes
all variables and arrays of type CHARACTER
by descriptor.
Future versions of, or dialects supported by, g77
might
pass CHARACTER
functions by descriptor as well.
Thus, use of %DESCR()
tends to be restricted to cases
where arg is not type CHARACTER
but the called
procedure accesses it via a means similar to the method
used for Fortran CHARACTER
arguments.
See section Procedures (SUBROUTINE and FUNCTION), for detailed information on
how this particular version of g77
passes arguments
to procedures.
The ANSI FORTRAN 77 language defines generic and specific intrinsics. In short, the distinctions are:
The GNU Fortran language generalizes these concepts somewhat,
especially by providing intrinsic subroutines and generic
intrinsics that are treated as either a specific intrinsic subroutine
or a specific intrinsic function (e.g. SECOND
).
However, GNU Fortran avoids generalizing this concept to the point where existing code would be accepted as meaning something possibly different than what was intended.
For example, ABS
is a generic intrinsic, so all working
code written using ABS
of an INTEGER
argument
expects an INTEGER
return value.
Similarly, all such code expects that ABS
of an INTEGER*2
argument returns an INTEGER*2
return value.
Yet, IABS
is a specific intrinsic that accepts only
an INTEGER(KIND=1)
argument.
Code that passes something other than an INTEGER(KIND=1)
argument to IABS
is not valid GNU Fortran code, because
it is not clear what the author intended.
For example, if `J' is INTEGER(KIND=6)
, `IABS(J)'
is not defined by the GNU Fortran language, because the programmer
might have used that construct to mean any of the following, subtly
different, things:
INTEGER(KIND=1)
first
(as if `IABS(INT(J))' had been written).
INTEGER(KIND=1)
(as if `INT(ABS(J))' had been written).
The distinctions matter especially when types and values wider than
INTEGER(KIND=1)
(such as INTEGER(KIND=2)
), or when
operations performing more "arithmetic" than absolute-value, are involved.
The following sample program is not a valid GNU Fortran program, but might be accepted by other compilers. If so, the output is likely to be revealing in terms of how a given compiler treats intrinsics (that normally are specific) when they are given arguments that do not conform to their stated requirements:
PROGRAM JCB002 C C Written by James Craig Burley 1997-02-20. C Contact via Internet email: burley@gnu.ai.mit.edu C C Determine how compilers handle non-standard IDIM C on INTEGER*2 operands, which presumably can be C extrapolated into understanding how the compiler C generally treats specific intrinsics that are passed C arguments not of the correct types. C C If your compiler implements INTEGER*2 and INTEGER C as the same type, change all INTEGER*2 below to C INTEGER*1. C INTEGER*2 I0, I4 INTEGER I1, I2, I3 INTEGER*2 ISMALL, ILARGE INTEGER*2 ITOOLG, ITWO LOGICAL L2, L3, L4 C C Find smallest INTEGER*2 number. C ISMALL=0 10 I0 = ISMALL-1 IF ((I0 .GE. ISMALL) .OR. (I0+1 .NE. ISMALL)) GOTO 20 ISMALL = I0 GOTO 10 20 CONTINUE C C Find largest INTEGER*2 number. C ILARGE=0 30 I0 = ILARGE+1 IF ((I0 .LE. ILARGE) .OR. (I0-1 .NE. ILARGE)) GOTO 40 ILARGE = I0 GOTO 30 40 CONTINUE C C Multiplying by two adds stress to the situation. C ITWO = 2 C C Need a number that, added to -2, is too wide to fit in I*2. C ITOOLG = ISMALL C C Use IDIM the straightforward way. C I1 = IDIM (ILARGE, ISMALL) * ITWO + ITOOLG C C Try first interpretation. C I2 = (INT (ILARGE) - INT (ISMALL)) * ITWO + ITOOLG C C Try second interpretation. C I3 = (INT (ILARGE - ISMALL)) * ITWO + ITOOLG C C Try third interpretation. C I4 = (ILARGE - ISMALL) * ITWO + ITOOLG C C Print results. C PRINT *, 'ILARGE=', ILARGE PRINT *, 'ITWO=', ITWO PRINT *, 'ITOOLG=', ITOOLG PRINT *, 'ISMALL=', ISMALL PRINT *, 'I1=', I1 PRINT *, 'I2=', I2 PRINT *, 'I3=', I3 PRINT *, 'I4=', I4 PRINT * L2 = (I1 .EQ. I2) L3 = (I1 .EQ. I3) L4 = (I1 .EQ. I4) IF (L2 .AND. .NOT.L3 .AND. .NOT.L4) THEN PRINT *, 'Interp 1: IDIM(I*2,I*2) => IDIM(INT(I*2),INT(I*2))' STOP END IF IF (L3 .AND. .NOT.L2 .AND. .NOT.L4) THEN PRINT *, 'Interp 2: IDIM(I*2,I*2) => INT(DIM(I*2,I*2))' STOP END IF IF (L4 .AND. .NOT.L2 .AND. .NOT.L3) THEN PRINT *, 'Interp 3: IDIM(I*2,I*2) => DIM(I*2,I*2)' STOP END IF PRINT *, 'Results need careful analysis.' END
It is possible that a future version of the GNU Fortran language
will permit specific intrinsic invocations with wrong-typed
arguments (such as IDIM
in the above example) if the vast
majority of production compilers agree on the interpretation of
such invocations.
Especially if you know of a compiler that does not implement interpretation 3 above (output `Interp 3: ...'), please let us know the details (compiler product, version, machine, results, and so on).
REAL()
and AIMAG()
of Complex
The GNU Fortran language disallows REAL(expr)
and AIMAG(expr)
,
where expr is any COMPLEX
type other than COMPLEX(KIND=1)
,
except when they are used in the following way:
REAL(REAL(expr)) REAL(AIMAG(expr))
The above forms explicitly specify that the desired effect
is to convert the real or imaginary part of expr, which might
be some REAL
type other than REAL(KIND=1)
,
to type REAL(KIND=1)
,
and have that serve as the value of the expression.
The GNU Fortran language offers clearly named intrinsics to extract the real and imaginary parts of a complex entity without any conversion:
REALPART(expr) IMAGPART(expr)
To express the above using typical extended FORTRAN 77,
use the following constructs
(when expr is COMPLEX(KIND=2)
):
DBLE(expr) DIMAG(expr)
The FORTRAN 77 language offers no way
to explicitly specify the real and imaginary parts of a complex expression of
arbitrary type, apparently as a result of requiring support for
only one COMPLEX
type (COMPLEX(KIND=1)
).
The concepts of converting an expression to type REAL(KIND=1)
and
of extracting the real part of a complex expression were
thus "smooshed" by FORTRAN 77 into a single intrinsic, since
they happened to have the exact same effect in that language
(due to having only one COMPLEX
type).
Note: When `-ff90' is in effect,
g77
treats `REAL(expr)', where expr is of
type COMPLEX
, as `REALPART(expr)',
whereas with `-fugly-complex -fno-f90' in effect, it is
treated as `REAL(REALPART(expr))'.
See section Ugly Complex Part Extraction, for more information.
CMPLX()
of DOUBLE PRECISION
In accordance with Fortran 90 and at least some (perhaps all)
other compilers, the GNU Fortran language defines CMPLX()
as always returning a result that is type COMPLEX(KIND=1)
.
This means `CMPLX(D1,D2)', where `D1' and `D2'
are REAL(KIND=2)
(DOUBLE PRECISION
), is treated as:
CMPLX(SNGL(D1), SNGL(D2))
The GNU Fortran language also provides the DCMPLX()
intrinsic,
which is provided by some FORTRAN 77 compilers to construct
a DOUBLE COMPLEX
entity from of DOUBLE PRECISION
operands.
However, this solution does not scale well when more COMPLEX
types
(having various precisions and ranges) are offered by Fortran implementations.
Fortran 90 extends the CMPLX()
intrinsic by adding
an extra argument used to specify the desired kind of complex
result.
However, this solution is somewhat awkward to use.
The GNU Fortran language provides a simple way to build a complex value out of two numbers, with the precise type of the value determined by the types of the two numbers (via the usual type-promotion mechanism):
COMPLEX(real, imag)
When real and imag are the same REAL
types, COMPLEX()
performs no conversion other than to put them together to form a
complex result of the same (complex version of real) type.
See section Complex Intrinsic, for more information.
The GNU Fortran language includes the MIL-STD 1753 intrinsics
BTEST
, IAND
, IBCLR
, IBITS
,
IBSET
, IEOR
, IOR
, ISHFT
,
ISHFTC
, MVBITS
, and NOT
.
f77
/f2c
Intrinsics
The bit-manipulation intrinsics supported by traditional
f77
and by f2c
are available in the GNU Fortran language.
These include AND
, LSHIFT
, OR
, RSHIFT
,
and XOR
.
Also supported are the intrinsics CDABS
,
CDCOS
, CDEXP
, CDLOG
, CDSIN
,
CDSQRT
, DCMPLX
, DCONJG
, DFLOAT
,
DIMAG
, DREAL
, and IMAG
,
ZABS
, ZCOS
, ZEXP
, ZLOG
, ZSIN
,
and ZSQRT
.
(Corresponds to Section 15.10 of ANSI X3.9-1978 FORTRAN 77.)
The GNU Fortran language adds various functions, subroutines, types, and arguments to the set of intrinsic functions in ANSI FORTRAN 77. The complete set of intrinsics supported by the GNU Fortran language is described below.
Note that a name is not treated as that of an intrinsic if it is
specified in an EXTERNAL
statement in the same program unit;
if a command-line option is used to disable the groups to which
the intrinsic belongs; or if the intrinsic is not named in an
INTRINSIC
statement and a command-line option is used to
hide the groups to which the intrinsic belongs.
So, it is recommended that any reference in a program unit to
an intrinsic procedure that is not a standard FORTRAN 77
intrinsic be accompanied by an appropriate INTRINSIC
statement in that program unit.
This sort of defensive programming makes it more
likely that an implementation will issue a diagnostic rather
than generate incorrect code for such a reference.
The terminology used below is based on that of the Fortran 90 standard, so that the text may be more concise and accurate:
OPTIONAL
means the argument may be omitted.
INTENT(IN)
means the argument must be an expression
(such as a constant or a variable that is defined upon invocation
of the intrinsic).
INTENT(OUT)
means the argument must be definable by the
invocation of the intrinsic (that is, must not be a constant nor
an expression involving operators other than array reference and
substring reference).
INTENT(INOUT)
means the argument must be defined prior to,
and definable by, invocation of the intrinsic (a combination of
the requirements of INTENT(IN)
and INTENT(OUT)
.
CALL Abort()
Intrinsic groups: unix
.
Description:
Prints a message and potentially causes a core dump via abort(3)
.
Abs(A)
Abs: INTEGER
or REAL
function.
The exact type depends on that of argument A---if A is
COMPLEX
, this function's type is REAL
with the same `KIND=' value as the type of A.
Otherwise, this function's type is the same as that of A.
A: INTEGER
, REAL
, or COMPLEX
; scalar; INTENT(IN).
Intrinsic groups: (standard FORTRAN 77).
Description:
Returns the absolute value of A.
If A is type COMPLEX
, the absolute
value is computed as:
SQRT(REALPART(A)**2, IMAGPART(A)**2)
Otherwise, it is computed by negating the A if it is negative, or returning A.
See section Sign Intrinsic, for how to explicitly compute the positive or negative form of the absolute value of an expression.
Access(Name, Mode)
Access: INTEGER(KIND=1)
function.
Name: CHARACTER
; scalar; INTENT(IN).
Mode: CHARACTER
; scalar; INTENT(IN).
Intrinsic groups: unix
.
Description:
Checks file Name for accessibility in the mode specified by Mode and
returns 0 if the file is accessible in that mode, otherwise an error
code if the file is inaccessible or Mode is invalid. See
access(2)
. Mode may be a concatenation of any of the
following characters:
AChar(I)
AChar: CHARACTER*1
function.
I: INTEGER
; scalar; INTENT(IN).
Intrinsic groups: f2c
, f90
.
Description:
Returns the ASCII character corresponding to the code specified by I.
See section IAChar Intrinsic, for the inverse function.
See section Char Intrinsic, for the function corresponding to the system's native character set.
ACos(X)
ACos: REAL
function, the `KIND=' value of the type being that of argument X.
X: REAL
; scalar; INTENT(IN).
Intrinsic groups: (standard FORTRAN 77).
Description:
Returns the arc-cosine (inverse cosine) of X in radians.
See section Cos Intrinsic, for the inverse function.
AImag(Z)
AImag: REAL
function.
This intrinsic is valid when argument Z is
COMPLEX(KIND=1)
.
When Z is any other COMPLEX
type,
this intrinsic is valid only when used as the argument to
REAL()
, as explained below.
Z: COMPLEX
; scalar; INTENT(IN).
Intrinsic groups: (standard FORTRAN 77).
Description:
Returns the (possibly converted) imaginary part of Z.
Use of AIMAG()
with an argument of a type
other than COMPLEX(KIND=1)
is restricted to the following case:
REAL(AIMAG(Z))
This expression converts the imaginary part of Z to
REAL(KIND=1)
.
See section REAL()
and AIMAG()
of Complex, for more information.
AInt(A)
AInt: REAL
function, the `KIND=' value of the type being that of argument A.
A: REAL
; scalar; INTENT(IN).
Intrinsic groups: (standard FORTRAN 77).
Description:
Returns A with the fractional portion of its magnitude truncated and its sign preserved. (Also called "truncation towards zero".)
See section ANInt Intrinsic, for how to round to nearest whole number.
See section Int Intrinsic, for how to truncate and then convert
number to INTEGER
.
ALog(X)
ALog: REAL(KIND=1)
function.
X: REAL(KIND=1)
; scalar; INTENT(IN).
Intrinsic groups: (standard FORTRAN 77).
Description:
Archaic form of LOG()
that is specific
to one type for X.
See section Log Intrinsic.
ALog10(X)
ALog10: REAL(KIND=1)
function.
X: REAL(KIND=1)
; scalar; INTENT(IN).
Intrinsic groups: (standard FORTRAN 77).
Description:
Archaic form of LOG10()
that is specific
to one type for X.
See section Log10 Intrinsic.
AMax0(A-1, A-2, ..., A-n)
AMax0: REAL(KIND=1)
function.
A: INTEGER(KIND=1)
; at least two such arguments must be provided; scalar; INTENT(IN).
Intrinsic groups: (standard FORTRAN 77).
Description:
Archaic form of MAX()
that is specific
to one type for A and a different return type.
See section Max Intrinsic.
AMax1(A-1, A-2, ..., A-n)
AMax1: REAL(KIND=1)
function.
A: REAL(KIND=1)
; at least two such arguments must be provided; scalar; INTENT(IN).
Intrinsic groups: (standard FORTRAN 77).
Description:
Archaic form of MAX()
that is specific
to one type for A.
See section Max Intrinsic.
AMin0(A-1, A-2, ..., A-n)
AMin0: REAL(KIND=1)
function.
A: INTEGER(KIND=1)
; at least two such arguments must be provided; scalar; INTENT(IN).
Intrinsic groups: (standard FORTRAN 77).
Description:
Archaic form of MIN()
that is specific
to one type for A and a different return type.
See section Min Intrinsic.
AMin1(A-1, A-2, ..., A-n)
AMin1: REAL(KIND=1)
function.
A: REAL(KIND=1)
; at least two such arguments must be provided; scalar; INTENT(IN).
Intrinsic groups: (standard FORTRAN 77).
Description:
Archaic form of MIN()
that is specific
to one type for A.
See section Min Intrinsic.
AMod(A, P)
AMod: REAL(KIND=1)
function.
A: REAL(KIND=1)
; scalar; INTENT(IN).
P: REAL(KIND=1)
; scalar; INTENT(IN).
Intrinsic groups: (standard FORTRAN 77).
Description:
Archaic form of MOD()
that is specific
to one type for A.
See section Mod Intrinsic.
And(I, J)
And: INTEGER
or LOGICAL
function, the exact type being the result of cross-promoting the
types of all the arguments.
I: INTEGER
or LOGICAL
; scalar; INTENT(IN).
J: INTEGER
or LOGICAL
; scalar; INTENT(IN).
Intrinsic groups: f2c
.
Description:
Returns value resulting from boolean AND of pair of bits in each of I and J.
ANInt(A)
ANInt: REAL
function, the `KIND=' value of the type being that of argument A.
A: REAL
; scalar; INTENT(IN).
Intrinsic groups: (standard FORTRAN 77).
Description:
Returns A with the fractional portion of its magnitude eliminated by rounding to the nearest whole number and with its sign preserved.
A fractional portion exactly equal to `.5' is rounded to the whole number that is larger in magnitude. (Also called "Fortran round".)
See section AInt Intrinsic, for how to truncate to whole number.
See section NInt Intrinsic, for how to round and then convert
number to INTEGER
.
ASin(X)
ASin: REAL
function, the `KIND=' value of the type being that of argument X.
X: REAL
; scalar; INTENT(IN).
Intrinsic groups: (standard FORTRAN 77).
Description:
Returns the arc-sine (inverse sine) of X in radians.
See section Sin Intrinsic, for the inverse function.
ATan(X)
ATan: REAL
function, the `KIND=' value of the type being that of argument X.
X: REAL
; scalar; INTENT(IN).
Intrinsic groups: (standard FORTRAN 77).
Description:
Returns the arc-tangent (inverse tangent) of X in radians.
See section Tan Intrinsic, for the inverse function.
ATan2(Y, X)
ATan2: REAL
function, the exact type being the result of cross-promoting the
types of all the arguments.
Y: REAL
; scalar; INTENT(IN).
X: REAL
; scalar; INTENT(IN).
Intrinsic groups: (standard FORTRAN 77).
Description:
Returns the arc-tangent (inverse tangent) of the complex number (Y, X) in radians.
See section Tan Intrinsic, for the inverse function.
BesJ0(X)
BesJ0: REAL
function, the `KIND=' value of the type being that of argument X.
X: REAL
; scalar; INTENT(IN).
Intrinsic groups: unix
.
Description:
Calculates the Bessel function of the first kind of order 0.
See bessel(3m)
, on whose implementation the function depends.
BesJ1(X)
BesJ1: REAL
function, the `KIND=' value of the type being that of argument X.
X: REAL
; scalar; INTENT(IN).
Intrinsic groups: unix
.
Description:
Calculates the Bessel function of the first kind of order 1.
See bessel(3m)
, on whose implementation the function depends.
BesJN(N, X)
BesJN: REAL
function, the `KIND=' value of the type being that of argument X.
N: INTEGER
; scalar; INTENT(IN).
X: REAL
; scalar; INTENT(IN).
Intrinsic groups: unix
.
Description:
Calculates the Bessel function of the first kind of order N.
See bessel(3m)
, on whose implementation the function depends.
BesY0(X)
BesY0: REAL
function, the `KIND=' value of the type being that of argument X.
X: REAL
; scalar; INTENT(IN).
Intrinsic groups: unix
.
Description:
Calculates the Bessel function of the second kind of order 0.
See bessel(3m)
, on whose implementation the function depends.
BesY1(X)
BesY1: REAL
function, the `KIND=' value of the type being that of argument X.
X: REAL
; scalar; INTENT(IN).
Intrinsic groups: unix
.
Description:
Calculates the Bessel function of the second kind of order 1.
See bessel(3m)
, on whose implementation the function depends.
BesYN(N, X)
BesYN: REAL
function, the `KIND=' value of the type being that of argument X.
N: INTEGER
; scalar; INTENT(IN).
X: REAL
; scalar; INTENT(IN).
Intrinsic groups: unix
.
Description:
Calculates the Bessel function of the second kind of order N.
See bessel(3m)
, on whose implementation the function depends.
Bit_Size(I)
Bit_Size: INTEGER
function, the `KIND=' value of the type being that of argument I.
I: INTEGER
; scalar.
Intrinsic groups: f90
.
Description:
Returns the number of bits (integer precision plus sign bit) represented by the type for I.
See section BTest Intrinsic, for how to test the value of a bit in a variable or array.
See section IBSet Intrinsic, for how to set a bit in a variable or array to 1.
BTest(I, Pos)
BTest: LOGICAL(KIND=1)
function.
I: INTEGER
; scalar; INTENT(IN).
Pos: INTEGER
; scalar; INTENT(IN).
Intrinsic groups: mil
, f90
, vxt
.
Description:
Returns .TRUE.
if bit Pos in I is
1, .FALSE.
otherwise.
(Bit 0 is the low-order bit, adding the value 2**0, or 1, to the number if set to 1; bit 1 is the next-higher-order bit, adding 2**1, or 2; bit 2 adds 2**2, or 4; and so on.)
See section Bit_Size Intrinsic, for how to obtain the number of bits in a type.
CAbs(A)
CAbs: REAL(KIND=1)
function.
A: COMPLEX(KIND=1)
; scalar; INTENT(IN).
Intrinsic groups: (standard FORTRAN 77).
Description:
Archaic form of ABS()
that is specific
to one type for A.
See section Abs Intrinsic.
CCos(X)
CCos: COMPLEX(KIND=1)
function.
X: COMPLEX(KIND=1)
; scalar; INTENT(IN).
Intrinsic groups: (standard FORTRAN 77).
CExp(X)
CExp: COMPLEX(KIND=1)
function.
X: COMPLEX(KIND=1)
; scalar; INTENT(IN).
Intrinsic groups: (standard FORTRAN 77).
Char(I)
Char: CHARACTER*1
function.
I: INTEGER
; scalar; INTENT(IN).
Intrinsic groups: (standard FORTRAN 77).
Description:
Returns the character corresponding to the code specified by I, using the system's native character set.
Because the system's native character set is used, the correspondence between character and their codes is not necessarily the same between GNU Fortran implementations.
See section IChar Intrinsic, for the inverse function.
See section AChar Intrinsic, for the function corresponding to the ASCII character set.
CALL ChDir(Dir, Status)
Dir: CHARACTER
; scalar; INTENT(IN).
Status: INTEGER(KIND=1)
; OPTIONAL; scalar; INTENT(OUT).
Intrinsic groups: unix
.
Description:
Sets the current working directory to be Dir.
If the Status argument is supplied, it contains 0
on success or an error code otherwise upon return.
See chdir(3)
.
CALL ChMod(Name, Mode, Status)
Name: CHARACTER
; scalar; INTENT(IN).
Mode: CHARACTER
; scalar; INTENT(IN).
Status: INTEGER
; OPTIONAL; scalar; INTENT(OUT).
Intrinsic groups: unix
.
Description:
Changes the access mode of file Name according to the
specification Mode, which is given in the format of
chmod(1)
.
If the Status argument is supplied, it contains 0
on success or an error code otherwise upon return.
Note that this currently works
by actually invoking /bin/chmod
(or the chmod
found when
the library was configured) and so may fail in some circumstances and
will, anyway, be slow.
CLog(X)
CLog: COMPLEX(KIND=1)
function.
X: COMPLEX(KIND=1)
; scalar; INTENT(IN).
Intrinsic groups: (standard FORTRAN 77).
Description:
Archaic form of LOG()
that is specific
to one type for X.
See section Log Intrinsic.
Cmplx(X, Y)
Cmplx: COMPLEX(KIND=1)
function.
X: INTEGER
, REAL
, or COMPLEX
; scalar; INTENT(IN).
Y: INTEGER
or REAL
; OPTIONAL (must be omitted if X is COMPLEX
); scalar; INTENT(IN).
Intrinsic groups: (standard FORTRAN 77).
Description:
If X is not type COMPLEX
,
constructs a value of type COMPLEX(KIND=1)
from the
real and imaginary values specified by X and
Y, respectively.
If Y is omitted, `0.' is assumed.
If X is type COMPLEX
,
converts it to type COMPLEX(KIND=1)
.
See section Complex Intrinsic, for information on easily constructing
a COMPLEX
value of arbitrary precision from REAL
arguments.
Complex(Real, Imag)
Complex: COMPLEX
function, the exact type being the result of cross-promoting the
types of all the arguments.
Real: INTEGER
or REAL
; scalar; INTENT(IN).
Imag: INTEGER
or REAL
; scalar; INTENT(IN).
Intrinsic groups: gnu
.
Description:
Returns a COMPLEX
value that has `Real' and `Imag' as its
real and imaginary parts, respectively.
If Real and Imag are the same type, and that type is not
INTEGER
, no data conversion is performed, and the type of
the resulting value has the same kind value as the types
of Real and Imag.
If Real and Imag are not the same type, the usual type-promotion
rules are applied to both, converting either or both to the
appropriate REAL
type.
The type of the resulting value has the same kind value as the
type to which both Real and Imag were converted, in this case.
If Real and Imag are both INTEGER
, they are both converted
to REAL(KIND=1)
, and the result of the COMPLEX()
invocation is type COMPLEX(KIND=1)
.
Note: The way to do this in standard Fortran 90
is too hairy to describe here, but it is important to
note that `CMPLX(D1,D2)' returns a COMPLEX(KIND=1)
result even if `D1' and `D2' are type REAL(KIND=2)
.
Hence the availability of COMPLEX()
in GNU Fortran.
Conjg(Z)
Conjg: COMPLEX
function, the `KIND=' value of the type being that of argument Z.
Z: COMPLEX
; scalar; INTENT(IN).
Intrinsic groups: (standard FORTRAN 77).
Description:
Returns the complex conjugate:
COMPLEX(REALPART(Z), -IMAGPART(Z))
Cos(X)
Cos: REAL
or COMPLEX
function, the exact type being that of argument X.
X: REAL
or COMPLEX
; scalar; INTENT(IN).
Intrinsic groups: (standard FORTRAN 77).
CosH(X)
CosH: REAL
function, the `KIND=' value of the type being that of argument X.
X: REAL
; scalar; INTENT(IN).
Intrinsic groups: (standard FORTRAN 77).
CSin(X)
CSin: COMPLEX(KIND=1)
function.
X: COMPLEX(KIND=1)
; scalar; INTENT(IN).
Intrinsic groups: (standard FORTRAN 77).
CSqRt(X)
CSqRt: COMPLEX(KIND=1)
function.
X: COMPLEX(KIND=1)
; scalar; INTENT(IN).
Intrinsic groups: (standard FORTRAN 77).
CTime(STime)
CTime: CHARACTER*(*)
function.
STime: INTEGER(KIND=2)
; scalar; INTENT(IN).
Intrinsic groups: unix
.
Description:
Converts STime, a system time value, such as returned by
TIME()
, to a string of the form `Sat Aug 19 18:13:14 1995'.
See section Time Intrinsic.
DAbs(A)
DAbs: REAL(KIND=2)
function.
A: REAL(KIND=2)
; scalar; INTENT(IN).
Intrinsic groups: (standard FORTRAN 77).
Description:
Archaic form of ABS()
that is specific
to one type for A.
See section Abs Intrinsic.
DACos(X)
DACos: REAL(KIND=2)
function.
X: REAL(KIND=2)
; scalar; INTENT(IN).
Intrinsic groups: (standard FORTRAN 77).
Description:
Archaic form of ACOS()
that is specific
to one type for X.
See section ACos Intrinsic.
DASin(X)
DASin: REAL(KIND=2)
function.
X: REAL(KIND=2)
; scalar; INTENT(IN).
Intrinsic groups: (standard FORTRAN 77).
Description:
Archaic form of ASIN()
that is specific
to one type for X.
See section ASin Intrinsic.
DATan(X)
DATan: REAL(KIND=2)
function.
X: REAL(KIND=2)
; scalar; INTENT(IN).
Intrinsic groups: (standard FORTRAN 77).
Description:
Archaic form of ATAN()
that is specific
to one type for X.
See section ATan Intrinsic.
DATan2(Y, X)
DATan2: REAL(KIND=2)
function.
Y: REAL(KIND=2)
; scalar; INTENT(IN).
X: REAL(KIND=2)
; scalar; INTENT(IN).
Intrinsic groups: (standard FORTRAN 77).
Description:
Archaic form of ATAN2()
that is specific
to one type for Y and X.
See section ATan2 Intrinsic.
DbesJ0(X)
DbesJ0: REAL(KIND=2)
function.
X: REAL(KIND=2)
; scalar; INTENT(IN).
Intrinsic groups: unix
.
DbesJ1(X)
DbesJ1: REAL(KIND=2)
function.
X: REAL(KIND=2)
; scalar; INTENT(IN).
Intrinsic groups: unix
.
DbesJN(N, X)
DbesJN: REAL(KIND=2)
function.
N: INTEGER
; scalar; INTENT(IN).
X: REAL(KIND=2)
; scalar; INTENT(IN).
Intrinsic groups: unix
.
DbesY0(X)
DbesY0: REAL(KIND=2)
function.
X: REAL(KIND=2)
; scalar; INTENT(IN).
Intrinsic groups: unix
.
DbesY1(X)
DbesY1: REAL(KIND=2)
function.
X: REAL(KIND=2)
; scalar; INTENT(IN).
Intrinsic groups: unix
.
DbesYN(N, X)
DbesYN: REAL(KIND=2)
function.
N: INTEGER
; scalar; INTENT(IN).
X: REAL(KIND=2)
; scalar; INTENT(IN).
Intrinsic groups: unix
.
Dble(A)
Dble: REAL(KIND=2)
function.
A: INTEGER
, REAL
, or COMPLEX
; scalar; INTENT(IN).
Intrinsic groups: (standard FORTRAN 77).
DCos(X)
DCos: REAL(KIND=2)
function.
X: REAL(KIND=2)
; scalar; INTENT(IN).
Intrinsic groups: (standard FORTRAN 77).
DCosH(X)
DCosH: REAL(KIND=2)
function.
X: REAL(KIND=2)
; scalar; INTENT(IN).
Intrinsic groups: (standard FORTRAN 77).
DDiM(X, Y)
DDiM: REAL(KIND=2)
function.
X: REAL(KIND=2)
; scalar; INTENT(IN).
Y: REAL(KIND=2)
; scalar; INTENT(IN).
Intrinsic groups: (standard FORTRAN 77).
DErF(X)
DErF: REAL(KIND=2)
function.
X: REAL(KIND=2)
; scalar; INTENT(IN).
Intrinsic groups: unix
.
DErFC(X)
DErFC: REAL(KIND=2)
function.
X: REAL(KIND=2)
; scalar; INTENT(IN).
Intrinsic groups: unix
.
DExp(X)
DExp: REAL(KIND=2)
function.
X: REAL(KIND=2)
; scalar; INTENT(IN).
Intrinsic groups: (standard FORTRAN 77).
DiM(X, Y)
DiM: INTEGER
or REAL
function, the exact type being the result of cross-promoting the
types of all the arguments.
X: INTEGER
or REAL
; scalar; INTENT(IN).
Y: INTEGER
or REAL
; scalar; INTENT(IN).
Intrinsic groups: (standard FORTRAN 77).
DInt(A)
DInt: REAL(KIND=2)
function.
A: REAL(KIND=2)
; scalar; INTENT(IN).
Intrinsic groups: (standard FORTRAN 77).
Description:
Archaic form of AINT()
that is specific
to one type for A.
See section AInt Intrinsic.
DLog(X)
DLog: REAL(KIND=2)
function.
X: REAL(KIND=2)
; scalar; INTENT(IN).
Intrinsic groups: (standard FORTRAN 77).
Description:
Archaic form of LOG()
that is specific
to one type for X.
See section Log Intrinsic.
DLog10(X)
DLog10: REAL(KIND=2)
function.
X: REAL(KIND=2)
; scalar; INTENT(IN).
Intrinsic groups: (standard FORTRAN 77).
Description:
Archaic form of LOG10()
that is specific
to one type for X.
See section Log10 Intrinsic.
DMax1(A-1, A-2, ..., A-n)
DMax1: REAL(KIND=2)
function.
A: REAL(KIND=2)
; at least two such arguments must be provided; scalar; INTENT(IN).
Intrinsic groups: (standard FORTRAN 77).
Description:
Archaic form of MAX()
that is specific
to one type for A.
See section Max Intrinsic.
DMin1(A-1, A-2, ..., A-n)
DMin1: REAL(KIND=2)
function.
A: REAL(KIND=2)
; at least two such arguments must be provided; scalar; INTENT(IN).
Intrinsic groups: (standard FORTRAN 77).
Description:
Archaic form of MIN()
that is specific
to one type for A.
See section Min Intrinsic.
DMod(A, P)
DMod: REAL(KIND=2)
function.
A: REAL(KIND=2)
; scalar; INTENT(IN).
P: REAL(KIND=2)
; scalar; INTENT(IN).
Intrinsic groups: (standard FORTRAN 77).
Description:
Archaic form of MOD()
that is specific
to one type for A.
See section Mod Intrinsic.
DNInt(A)
DNInt: REAL(KIND=2)
function.
A: REAL(KIND=2)
; scalar; INTENT(IN).
Intrinsic groups: (standard FORTRAN 77).
Description:
Archaic form of ANINT()
that is specific
to one type for A.
See section ANInt Intrinsic.
DProd(X, Y)
DProd: REAL(KIND=2)
function.
X: REAL(KIND=1)
; scalar; INTENT(IN).
Y: REAL(KIND=1)
; scalar; INTENT(IN).
Intrinsic groups: (standard FORTRAN 77).
DSign(A, B)
DSign: REAL(KIND=2)
function.
A: REAL(KIND=2)
; scalar; INTENT(IN).
B: REAL(KIND=2)
; scalar; INTENT(IN).
Intrinsic groups: (standard FORTRAN 77).
DSin(X)
DSin: REAL(KIND=2)
function.
X: REAL(KIND=2)
; scalar; INTENT(IN).
Intrinsic groups: (standard FORTRAN 77).
DSinH(X)
DSinH: REAL(KIND=2)
function.
X: REAL(KIND=2)
; scalar; INTENT(IN).
Intrinsic groups: (standard FORTRAN 77).
DSqRt(X)
DSqRt: REAL(KIND=2)
function.
X: REAL(KIND=2)
; scalar; INTENT(IN).
Intrinsic groups: (standard FORTRAN 77).
DTan(X)
DTan: REAL(KIND=2)
function.
X: REAL(KIND=2)
; scalar; INTENT(IN).
Intrinsic groups: (standard FORTRAN 77).
DTanH(X)
DTanH: REAL(KIND=2)
function.
X: REAL(KIND=2)
; scalar; INTENT(IN).
Intrinsic groups: (standard FORTRAN 77).
Dtime(TArray)
Dtime: REAL(KIND=1)
function.
TArray: REAL(KIND=1)
; DIMENSION(2); INTENT(OUT).
Intrinsic groups: unix
.
Description:
Initially, return in seconds the runtime (since the start of the process' execution) as the function value and the user and system components of this in `TArray(1)' and `TArray(2)' respectively. The functions' value is equal to `TArray(1) + `TArray'(2)'.
Subsequent invocations of `DTIME()' return values accumulated since the previous invocation.
ErF(X)
ErF: REAL
function, the `KIND=' value of the type being that of argument X.
X: REAL
; scalar; INTENT(IN).
Intrinsic groups: unix
.
Description:
Returns the error function of X.
See erf(3m)
, which provides the implementation.
ErFC(X)
ErFC: REAL
function, the `KIND=' value of the type being that of argument X.
X: REAL
; scalar; INTENT(IN).
Intrinsic groups: unix
.
Description:
Returns the complementary error function of X:
ERFC(R) = 1 - ERF(R)
(except that the result may be more
accurate than explicitly evaluating that formulae would give).
See erfc(3m)
, which provides the implementation.
ETime(TArray)
ETime: REAL(KIND=1)
function.
TArray: REAL(KIND=1)
; DIMENSION(2); INTENT(OUT).
Intrinsic groups: unix
.
Description:
Return in seconds the runtime (since the start of the process' execution) as the function value and the user and system components of this in `TArray(1)' and `TArray(2)' respectively. The functions' value is equal to `TArray(1) + TArray(2)'.
CALL Exit(Status)
Status: INTEGER
; OPTIONAL; scalar; INTENT(IN).
Intrinsic groups: unix
.
Description:
Exit the program with status Status after closing open Fortran
i/o units and otherwise behaving as exit(2)
. If Status
is omitted the canonical `success' value will be returned to the
system.
Exp(X)
Exp: REAL
or COMPLEX
function, the exact type being that of argument X.
X: REAL
or COMPLEX
; scalar; INTENT(IN).
Intrinsic groups: (standard FORTRAN 77).
Fdate()
Fdate: CHARACTER*(*)
function.
Intrinsic groups: unix
.
Description:
Returns the current date in the same format as CTIME()
.
Equivalent to:
CTIME(TIME())
See section CTime Intrinsic.
CALL FGetC(Unit, C, Status)
Unit: INTEGER
; scalar; INTENT(IN).
C: CHARACTER
; scalar; INTENT(OUT).
Status: INTEGER
; scalar; INTENT(OUT).
Intrinsic groups: unix
.
Float(A)
Float: REAL(KIND=1)
function.
A: INTEGER
; scalar; INTENT(IN).
Intrinsic groups: (standard FORTRAN 77).
CALL Flush(Unit)
Unit: INTEGER
; OPTIONAL; scalar; INTENT(IN).
Intrinsic groups: unix
.
Description:
Flushes Fortran unit(s) currently open for output. Without the optional argument, all such units are flushed, otherwise just the unit specified by Unit.
FNum(Unit)
FNum: INTEGER(KIND=1)
function.
Unit: INTEGER
; scalar; INTENT(IN).
Intrinsic groups: unix
.
Description:
Returns the Unix file descriptor number corresponding to the open Fortran I/O unit Unit. This could be passed to an interface to C I/O routines.
CALL FPutC(Unit, C, Status)
Unit: INTEGER
; scalar; INTENT(IN).
C: CHARACTER
; scalar; INTENT(IN).
Status: INTEGER
; scalar; INTENT(OUT).
Intrinsic groups: unix
.
CALL FSeek(Unit, Offset, Whence, ErrLab)
Unit: INTEGER
; scalar; INTENT(IN).
Offset: INTEGER
; scalar; INTENT(IN).
Whence: INTEGER
; scalar; INTENT(IN).
ErrLab: `*label', where label is the label of an executable statement; OPTIONAL.
Intrinsic groups: unix
.
Description:
Attempts to move Fortran unit Unit to the specified Offset: absolute offset if Offset=0; relative to the current offset if Offset=1; relative to the end of the file if Offset=2. It branches to label Whence if Unit is not open or if the call otherwise fails.
FStat(Unit, SArray)
FStat: INTEGER(KIND=1)
function.
Unit: INTEGER
; scalar; INTENT(IN).
SArray: INTEGER(KIND=1)
; DIMENSION(13); INTENT(OUT).
Intrinsic groups: unix
.
Description:
Obtains data about the file open on Fortran I/O unit Unit and
places them in the array SArray.
The values in this array are
extracted from the stat
structure as returned by
fstat(2)
q.v., as follows:
Not all these elements are relevant on all systems. If an element is not relevant, it is returned as 0.
Returns 0 on success, otherwise an error number.
FTell(Unit)
FTell: INTEGER(KIND=1)
function.
Unit: INTEGER
; scalar; INTENT(IN).
Intrinsic groups: unix
.
Description:
Returns the current offset of Fortran unit Unit (or -1 if Unit is not open).
CALL GError(Message)
Message: CHARACTER
; scalar; INTENT(OUT).
Intrinsic groups: unix
.
Description:
Returns the system error message corresponding to the last system
error (C errno
).
CALL GetArg(Pos, Value)
Pos: INTEGER
; scalar; INTENT(IN).
Value: CHARACTER
; scalar; INTENT(OUT).
Intrinsic groups: unix
.
Description:
Sets Value to the Pos-th command-line argument (or to all
blanks if there are fewer than Value command-line arguments);
CALL GETARG(0, value)
sets value to the name of the
program (on systems that support this feature).
See section IArgC Intrinsic, for information on how to get the number of arguments.
GetCWD(Name)
GetCWD: INTEGER(KIND=1)
function.
Name: CHARACTER
; scalar; INTENT(OUT).
Intrinsic groups: unix
.
Description:
Places the current working directory in Name. Returns 0 on success, otherwise an error code.
CALL GetEnv(Name, Value)
Name: CHARACTER
; scalar; INTENT(IN).
Value: CHARACTER
; scalar; INTENT(OUT).
Intrinsic groups: unix
.
Description:
Sets Value to the value of environment variable given by the
value of Name ($name
in shell terms) or to blanks if
$name
has not been set.
GetGId()
GetGId: INTEGER(KIND=1)
function.
Intrinsic groups: unix
.
Description:
Returns the group id for the current process.
CALL GetLog(Login)
Login: CHARACTER
; scalar; INTENT(OUT).
Intrinsic groups: unix
.
Description:
Returns the login name for the process in Login.
GetPId()
GetPId: INTEGER(KIND=1)
function.
Intrinsic groups: unix
.
Description:
Returns the process id for the current process.
GetUId()
GetUId: INTEGER(KIND=1)
function.
Intrinsic groups: unix
.
Description:
Returns the user id for the current process.
CALL GMTime(STime, TArray)
STime: INTEGER(KIND=1)
; scalar; INTENT(IN).
TArray: INTEGER(KIND=1)
; DIMENSION(9); INTENT(OUT).
Intrinsic groups: unix
.
Description:
Given a system time value STime, fills TArray with values
extracted from it appropriate to the GMT time zone using
gmtime(3)
.
The array elements are as follows:
HostNm(Name)
HostNm: INTEGER(KIND=1)
function.
Name: CHARACTER
; scalar; INTENT(OUT).
Intrinsic groups: unix
.
Description:
Fills Name with the system's host name returned by
gethostname(2)
, returning 0 on success or an error code.
This function is not available on all systems.
IAbs(A)
IAbs: INTEGER(KIND=1)
function.
A: INTEGER(KIND=1)
; scalar; INTENT(IN).
Intrinsic groups: (standard FORTRAN 77).
Description:
Archaic form of ABS()
that is specific
to one type for A.
See section Abs Intrinsic.
IAChar(C)
IAChar: INTEGER(KIND=1)
function.
C: CHARACTER
; scalar; INTENT(IN).
Intrinsic groups: f2c
, f90
.
Description:
Returns the code for the ASCII character in the first character position of C.
See section AChar Intrinsic, for the inverse function.
See section IChar Intrinsic, for the function corresponding to the system's native character set.
IAnd(I, J)
IAnd: INTEGER
function, the exact type being the result of cross-promoting the
types of all the arguments.
I: INTEGER
; scalar; INTENT(IN).
J: INTEGER
; scalar; INTENT(IN).
Intrinsic groups: mil
, f90
, vxt
.
Description:
Returns value resulting from boolean AND of pair of bits in each of I and J.
IArgC()
IArgC: INTEGER(KIND=1)
function.
Intrinsic groups: unix
.
Description:
Returns the number of command-line arguments.
This count does not include the specification of the program name itself.
IBClr(I, Pos)
IBClr: INTEGER
function, the `KIND=' value of the type being that of argument I.
I: INTEGER
; scalar; INTENT(IN).
Pos: INTEGER
; scalar; INTENT(IN).
Intrinsic groups: mil
, f90
, vxt
.
IBits(I, Pos, Len)
IBits: INTEGER
function, the `KIND=' value of the type being that of argument I.
I: INTEGER
; scalar; INTENT(IN).
Pos: INTEGER
; scalar; INTENT(IN).
Len: INTEGER
; scalar; INTENT(IN).
Intrinsic groups: mil
, f90
, vxt
.
IBSet(I, Pos)
IBSet: INTEGER
function, the `KIND=' value of the type being that of argument I.
I: INTEGER
; scalar; INTENT(IN).
Pos: INTEGER
; scalar; INTENT(IN).
Intrinsic groups: mil
, f90
, vxt
.
IChar(C)
IChar: INTEGER(KIND=1)
function.
C: CHARACTER
; scalar; INTENT(IN).
Intrinsic groups: (standard FORTRAN 77).
Description:
Returns the code for the character in the first character position of C.
Because the system's native character set is used, the correspondence between character and their codes is not necessarily the same between GNU Fortran implementations.
See section Char Intrinsic, for the inverse function.
See section IAChar Intrinsic, for the function corresponding to the ASCII character set.
CALL IDate(TArray)
TArray: INTEGER(KIND=1)
; DIMENSION(3); INTENT(OUT).
Intrinsic groups: unix
.
Description:
Fills TArray with the numerical values at the current local time of day, month (in the range 1--12), and year in elements 1, 2, and 3, respectively. The year has four significant digits.
IDiM(X, Y)
IDiM: INTEGER(KIND=1)
function.
X: INTEGER(KIND=1)
; scalar; INTENT(IN).
Y: INTEGER(KIND=1)
; scalar; INTENT(IN).
Intrinsic groups: (standard FORTRAN 77).
IDInt(A)
IDInt: INTEGER(KIND=1)
function.
A: REAL(KIND=2)
; scalar; INTENT(IN).
Intrinsic groups: (standard FORTRAN 77).
Description:
Archaic form of INT()
that is specific
to one type for A.
See section Int Intrinsic.
IDNInt(A)
IDNInt: INTEGER(KIND=1)
function.
A: REAL(KIND=2)
; scalar; INTENT(IN).
Intrinsic groups: (standard FORTRAN 77).
Description:
Archaic form of NINT()
that is specific
to one type for A.
See section NInt Intrinsic.
IEOr(I, J)
IEOr: INTEGER
function, the exact type being the result of cross-promoting the
types of all the arguments.
I: INTEGER
; scalar; INTENT(IN).
J: INTEGER
; scalar; INTENT(IN).
Intrinsic groups: mil
, f90
, vxt
.
Description:
Returns value resulting from boolean exclusive-OR of pair of bits in each of I and J.
IErrNo()
IErrNo: INTEGER(KIND=1)
function.
Intrinsic groups: unix
.
Description:
Returns the last system error number (corresponding to the C
errno
).
IFix(A)
IFix: INTEGER(KIND=1)
function.
A: INTEGER
, REAL
, or COMPLEX
; scalar; INTENT(IN).
Intrinsic groups: (standard FORTRAN 77).
Description:
Returns A with the fractional portion of its
magnitude truncated and its sign preserved, converted
to type INTEGER(KIND=1)
.
If A is type COMPLEX
, its real part is
truncated and converted.
See section NInt Intrinsic, for how to convert, rounded to nearest whole number.
See section AInt Intrinsic, for how to truncate to whole number without converting.
Imag(Z)
Imag: REAL
function, the `KIND=' value of the type being that of argument Z.
Z: COMPLEX
; scalar; INTENT(IN).
Intrinsic groups: f2c
.
Description:
The imaginary part of Z is returned, without conversion.
Note: The way to do this in standard Fortran 90
is `AIMAG(Z)'.
However, when, for example, Z is DOUBLE COMPLEX
,
`AIMAG(Z)' means something different for some compilers
that are not true Fortran 90 compilers but offer some
extensions standardized by Fortran 90 (such as the
DOUBLE COMPLEX
type, also known as COMPLEX(KIND=2)
).
The advantage of IMAG()
is that, while not necessarily
more or less portable than AIMAG()
, it is more likely to
cause a compiler that doesn't support it to produce a diagnostic
than generate incorrect code.
See section REAL()
and AIMAG()
of Complex, for more information.
ImagPart(Z)
ImagPart: REAL
function, the `KIND=' value of the type being that of argument Z.
Z: COMPLEX
; scalar; INTENT(IN).
Intrinsic groups: gnu
.
Description:
The imaginary part of Z is returned, without conversion.
Note: The way to do this in standard Fortran 90
is `AIMAG(Z)'.
However, when, for example, Z is DOUBLE COMPLEX
,
`AIMAG(Z)' means something different for some compilers
that are not true Fortran 90 compilers but offer some
extensions standardized by Fortran 90 (such as the
DOUBLE COMPLEX
type, also known as COMPLEX(KIND=2)
).
The advantage of IMAGPART()
is that, while not necessarily
more or less portable than AIMAG()
, it is more likely to
cause a compiler that doesn't support it to produce a diagnostic
than generate incorrect code.
See section REAL()
and AIMAG()
of Complex, for more information.
Index(String, Substring)
Index: INTEGER(KIND=1)
function.
String: CHARACTER
; scalar; INTENT(IN).
Substring: CHARACTER
; scalar; INTENT(IN).
Intrinsic groups: (standard FORTRAN 77).
Int(A)
Int: INTEGER(KIND=1)
function.
A: INTEGER
, REAL
, or COMPLEX
; scalar; INTENT(IN).
Intrinsic groups: (standard FORTRAN 77).
Description:
Returns A with the fractional portion of its
magnitude truncated and its sign preserved, converted
to type INTEGER(KIND=1)
.
If A is type COMPLEX
, its real part is
truncated and converted.
See section NInt Intrinsic, for how to convert, rounded to nearest whole number.
See section AInt Intrinsic, for how to truncate to whole number without converting.
IOr(I, J)
IOr: INTEGER
function, the exact type being the result of cross-promoting the
types of all the arguments.
I: INTEGER
; scalar; INTENT(IN).
J: INTEGER
; scalar; INTENT(IN).
Intrinsic groups: mil
, f90
, vxt
.
Description:
Returns value resulting from boolean OR of pair of bits in each of I and J.
IRand(Flag)
IRand: INTEGER(KIND=1)
function.
Flag: INTEGER
; OPTIONAL; scalar; INTENT(IN).
Intrinsic groups: unix
.
Description:
Returns a uniform quasi-random number up to a system-dependent limit.
If Flag is 0, the next number in sequence is returned; if
Flag is 1, the generator is restarted by calling the UNIX function
`srand(0)'; if Flag has any other value,
it is used as a new seed with srand()
.
See section SRand Intrinsic.
Note: As typically implemented (by the routine of the same name in the C library), this random number generator is a very poor one, though the BSD and GNU libraries provide a much better implementation than the `traditional' one. On a different system you almost certainly want to use something better.
IsaTty(Unit)
IsaTty: LOGICAL(KIND=1)
function.
Unit: INTEGER
; scalar; INTENT(IN).
Intrinsic groups: unix
.
Description:
Returns .TRUE.
if and only if the Fortran I/O unit
specified by Unit is connected
to a terminal device.
See isatty(3)
.
IShft(I, Shift)
IShft: INTEGER
function, the `KIND=' value of the type being that of argument I.
I: INTEGER
; scalar; INTENT(IN).
Shift: INTEGER
; scalar; INTENT(IN).
Intrinsic groups: mil
, f90
, vxt
.
IShftC(I, Shift, Size)
IShftC: INTEGER
function, the `KIND=' value of the type being that of argument I.
I: INTEGER
; scalar; INTENT(IN).
Shift: INTEGER
; scalar; INTENT(IN).
Size: INTEGER
; scalar; INTENT(IN).
Intrinsic groups: mil
, f90
, vxt
.
ISign(A, B)
ISign: INTEGER(KIND=1)
function.
A: INTEGER(KIND=1)
; scalar; INTENT(IN).
B: INTEGER(KIND=1)
; scalar; INTENT(IN).
Intrinsic groups: (standard FORTRAN 77).
CALL ITime(TArray)
TArray: INTEGER(KIND=1)
; DIMENSION(3); INTENT(OUT).
Intrinsic groups: unix
.
Description:
Returns the current local time hour, minutes, and seconds in elements 1, 2, and 3 of TArray, respectively.
CALL Kill(Pid, Signal, Status)
Pid: INTEGER
; scalar; INTENT(IN).
Signal: INTEGER
; scalar; INTENT(IN).
Status: INTEGER
; OPTIONAL; scalar; INTENT(OUT).
Intrinsic groups: unix
.
Description:
Sends the signal specified by Signal to the process Pid. Returns zero
on success, otherwise an error number.
See kill(2)
.
Len(String)
Len: INTEGER(KIND=1)
function.
String: CHARACTER
; scalar.
Intrinsic groups: (standard FORTRAN 77).
Len_Trim(String)
Len_Trim: INTEGER(KIND=1)
function.
String: CHARACTER
; scalar; INTENT(IN).
Intrinsic groups: f90
.
Description:
Returns the index of the last non-blank character in String.
LNBLNK
and LEN_TRIM
are equivalent.
LGe(String_A, String_B)
LGe: LOGICAL(KIND=1)
function.
String_A: CHARACTER
; scalar; INTENT(IN).
String_B: CHARACTER
; scalar; INTENT(IN).
Intrinsic groups: (standard FORTRAN 77).
LGt(String_A, String_B)
LGt: LOGICAL(KIND=1)
function.
String_A: CHARACTER
; scalar; INTENT(IN).
String_B: CHARACTER
; scalar; INTENT(IN).
Intrinsic groups: (standard FORTRAN 77).
CALL Link(Path1, Path2, Status)
Path1: CHARACTER
; scalar; INTENT(IN).
Path2: CHARACTER
; scalar; INTENT(IN).
Status: INTEGER
; OPTIONAL; scalar; INTENT(OUT).
Intrinsic groups: unix
.
Description:
Makes a (hard) link from Path1 to Path2.
If the
Status argument is supplied, it contains 0 on success or an error
code otherwise.
See link(2)
.
LLe(String_A, String_B)
LLe: LOGICAL(KIND=1)
function.
String_A: CHARACTER
; scalar; INTENT(IN).
String_B: CHARACTER
; scalar; INTENT(IN).
Intrinsic groups: (standard FORTRAN 77).
LLt(String_A, String_B)
LLt: LOGICAL(KIND=1)
function.
String_A: CHARACTER
; scalar; INTENT(IN).
String_B: CHARACTER
; scalar; INTENT(IN).
Intrinsic groups: (standard FORTRAN 77).
LnBlnk(String)
LnBlnk: INTEGER(KIND=1)
function.
String: CHARACTER
; scalar; INTENT(IN).
Intrinsic groups: unix
.
Description:
Returns the index of the last non-blank character in String.
LNBLNK
and LEN_TRIM
are equivalent.
Loc(Entity)
Loc: INTEGER(KIND=0)
function.
Entity: Any type; cannot be a constant or expression.
Intrinsic groups: unix
.
Description:
The LOC()
intrinsic works the
same way as the %LOC()
construct.
See section The %LOC()
Construct, for
more information.
Log(X)
Log: REAL
or COMPLEX
function, the exact type being that of argument X.
X: REAL
or COMPLEX
; scalar; INTENT(IN).
Intrinsic groups: (standard FORTRAN 77).
Description:
Returns the natural logarithm of X, which must
be greater than zero or, if type COMPLEX
, must not
be zero.
See section Exp Intrinsic, for the inverse function.
See section Log10 Intrinsic, for the base-10 logarithm function.
Log10(X)
Log10: REAL
function, the `KIND=' value of the type being that of argument X.
X: REAL
; scalar; INTENT(IN).
Intrinsic groups: (standard FORTRAN 77).
Description:
Returns the natural logarithm of X, which must
be greater than zero or, if type COMPLEX
, must not
be zero.
The inverse function is `10. ** LOG10(X)'.
See section Log Intrinsic, for the natural logarithm function.
Long(A)
Long: INTEGER(KIND=1)
function.
A: INTEGER
; scalar; INTENT(IN).
Intrinsic groups: unix
.
LShift(I, Shift)
LShift: INTEGER
function, the `KIND=' value of the type being that of argument I.
I: INTEGER
; scalar; INTENT(IN).
Shift: INTEGER
; scalar; INTENT(IN).
Intrinsic groups: f2c
.
LStat(File, SArray)
LStat: INTEGER(KIND=1)
function.
File: CHARACTER
; scalar; INTENT(IN).
SArray: INTEGER(KIND=1)
; DIMENSION(13); INTENT(OUT).
Intrinsic groups: unix
.
Description:
Obtains data about the given File and places them in the array
SArray.
If File is a symbolic link it returns data on the
link itself, so the routine is available only on systems that support
symbolic links.
The values in this array are extracted from the
stat
structure as returned by fstat(2)
q.v., as follows:
Not all these elements are relevant on all systems. If an element is not relevant, it is returned as 0.
Returns 0 on success, otherwise an error number.
CALL LTime(STime, TArray)
STime: INTEGER(KIND=1)
; scalar; INTENT(IN).
TArray: INTEGER(KIND=1)
; DIMENSION(9); INTENT(OUT).
Intrinsic groups: unix
.
Description:
Given a system time value STime, fills TArray with values
extracted from it appropriate to the GMT time zone using
localtime(3)
.
The array elements are as follows:
Max(A-1, A-2, ..., A-n)
Max: INTEGER
or REAL
function, the exact type being the result of cross-promoting the
types of all the arguments.
A: INTEGER
or REAL
; at least two such arguments must be provided; scalar; INTENT(IN).
Intrinsic groups: (standard FORTRAN 77).
Description:
Returns the argument with the largest value.
See section Min Intrinsic, for the opposite function.
Max0(A-1, A-2, ..., A-n)
Max0: INTEGER(KIND=1)
function.
A: INTEGER(KIND=1)
; at least two such arguments must be provided; scalar; INTENT(IN).
Intrinsic groups: (standard FORTRAN 77).
Description:
Archaic form of MAX()
that is specific
to one type for A.
See section Max Intrinsic.
Max1(A-1, A-2, ..., A-n)
Max1: INTEGER(KIND=1)
function.
A: REAL(KIND=1)
; at least two such arguments must be provided; scalar; INTENT(IN).
Intrinsic groups: (standard FORTRAN 77).
Description:
Archaic form of MAX()
that is specific
to one type for A and a different return type.
See section Max Intrinsic.
MClock()
MClock: INTEGER(KIND=2)
function.
Intrinsic groups: unix
.
Description:
Returns the number of clock ticks since the start of the process.
Only defined on systems with clock(3)
(q.v.).
Min(A-1, A-2, ..., A-n)
Min: INTEGER
or REAL
function, the exact type being the result of cross-promoting the
types of all the arguments.
A: INTEGER
or REAL
; at least two such arguments must be provided; scalar; INTENT(IN).
Intrinsic groups: (standard FORTRAN 77).
Description:
Returns the argument with the smallest value.
See section Max Intrinsic, for the opposite function.
Min0(A-1, A-2, ..., A-n)
Min0: INTEGER(KIND=1)
function.
A: INTEGER(KIND=1)
; at least two such arguments must be provided; scalar; INTENT(IN).
Intrinsic groups: (standard FORTRAN 77).
Description:
Archaic form of MIN()
that is specific
to one type for A.
See section Min Intrinsic.
Min1(A-1, A-2, ..., A-n)
Min1: INTEGER(KIND=1)
function.
A: REAL(KIND=1)
; at least two such arguments must be provided; scalar; INTENT(IN).
Intrinsic groups: (standard FORTRAN 77).
Description:
Archaic form of MIN()
that is specific
to one type for A and a different return type.
See section Min Intrinsic.
Mod(A, P)
Mod: INTEGER
or REAL
function, the exact type being the result of cross-promoting the
types of all the arguments.
A: INTEGER
or REAL
; scalar; INTENT(IN).
P: INTEGER
or REAL
; scalar; INTENT(IN).
Intrinsic groups: (standard FORTRAN 77).
Description:
Returns remainder calculated as:
A - (INT(A / P) * P)
P must not be zero.
CALL MvBits(From, FromPos, Len, TO, ToPos)
From: INTEGER
; scalar; INTENT(IN).
FromPos: INTEGER
; scalar; INTENT(IN).
Len: INTEGER
; scalar; INTENT(IN).
TO: INTEGER
with same `KIND=' value as for From; scalar; INTENT(INOUT).
ToPos: INTEGER
; scalar; INTENT(IN).
Intrinsic groups: mil
, f90
, vxt
.
NInt(A)
NInt: INTEGER(KIND=1)
function.
A: REAL
; scalar; INTENT(IN).
Intrinsic groups: (standard FORTRAN 77).
Description:
Returns A with the fractional portion of its
magnitude eliminated by rounding to the nearest whole
number and with its sign preserved, converted
to type INTEGER(KIND=1)
.
If A is type COMPLEX
, its real part is
rounded and converted.
A fractional portion exactly equal to `.5' is rounded to the whole number that is larger in magnitude. (Also called "Fortran round".)
See section Int Intrinsic, for how to convert, truncate to whole number.
See section ANInt Intrinsic, for how to round to nearest whole number without converting.
Not(I)
Not: INTEGER
function, the `KIND=' value of the type being that of argument I.
I: INTEGER
; scalar; INTENT(IN).
Intrinsic groups: mil
, f90
, vxt
.
Description:
Returns value resulting from boolean NOT of each bit in I.
Or(I, J)
Or: INTEGER
or LOGICAL
function, the exact type being the result of cross-promoting the
types of all the arguments.
I: INTEGER
or LOGICAL
; scalar; INTENT(IN).
J: INTEGER
or LOGICAL
; scalar; INTENT(IN).
Intrinsic groups: f2c
.
Description:
Returns value resulting from boolean OR of pair of bits in each of I and J.
CALL PError(String)
String: CHARACTER
; scalar; INTENT(IN).
Intrinsic groups: unix
.
Description:
Prints (on the C stderr
stream) a newline-terminated error
message corresponding to the last system error.
This is prefixed by String, a colon and a space.
See perror(3)
.
Rand(Flag)
Rand: REAL(KIND=1)
function.
Flag: INTEGER
; OPTIONAL; scalar; INTENT(IN).
Intrinsic groups: unix
.
Description:
Returns a uniform quasi-random number between 0 and 1.
If Flag is 0, the next number in sequence is returned; if
Flag is 1, the generator is restarted by calling `srand(0)';
if Flag has any other value, it is used as a new seed with
srand
.
See section SRand Intrinsic.
Note: As typically implemented (by the routine of the same name in the C library), this random number generator is a very poor one, though the BSD and GNU libraries provide a much better implementation than the `traditional' one. On a different system you almost certainly want to use something better.
Real(A)
Real: REAL
function.
The exact type is `REAL(KIND=1)' when argument A is
any type other than COMPLEX
, or when it is COMPLEX(KIND=1)
.
When A is any COMPLEX
type other than COMPLEX(KIND=1)
,
this intrinsic is valid only when used as the argument to
REAL()
, as explained below.
A: INTEGER
, REAL
, or COMPLEX
; scalar; INTENT(IN).
Intrinsic groups: (standard FORTRAN 77).
Description:
Converts A to REAL(KIND=1)
.
Use of REAL()
with a COMPLEX
argument
(other than COMPLEX(KIND=1)
) is restricted to the following case:
REAL(REAL(A))
This expression converts the real part of A to
REAL(KIND=1)
.
See section REAL()
and AIMAG()
of Complex, for more information.
RealPart(Z)
RealPart: REAL
function, the `KIND=' value of the type being that of argument Z.
Z: COMPLEX
; scalar; INTENT(IN).
Intrinsic groups: gnu
.
Description:
The real part of Z is returned, without conversion.
Note: The way to do this in standard Fortran 90
is `REAL(Z)'.
However, when, for example, Z is COMPLEX(KIND=2)
,
`REAL(Z)' means something different for some compilers
that are not true Fortran 90 compilers but offer some
extensions standardized by Fortran 90 (such as the
DOUBLE COMPLEX
type, also known as COMPLEX(KIND=2)
).
The advantage of REALPART()
is that, while not necessarily
more or less portable than REAL()
, it is more likely to
cause a compiler that doesn't support it to produce a diagnostic
than generate incorrect code.
See section REAL()
and AIMAG()
of Complex, for more information.
CALL Rename(Path1, Path2, Status)
Path1: CHARACTER
; scalar; INTENT(IN).
Path2: CHARACTER
; scalar; INTENT(IN).
Status: INTEGER
; OPTIONAL; scalar; INTENT(OUT).
Intrinsic groups: unix
.
Description:
Renames the file Path1 to Path2.
See rename(2)
.
If the Status argument is supplied, it contains 0 on success or an
error code otherwise upon return.
RShift(I, Shift)
RShift: INTEGER
function, the `KIND=' value of the type being that of argument I.
I: INTEGER
; scalar; INTENT(IN).
Shift: INTEGER
; scalar; INTENT(IN).
Intrinsic groups: f2c
.
Second()
Second: REAL(KIND=1)
function.
Intrinsic groups: unix
.
Description:
Returns the process' runtime in seconds--the same value as the
UNIX function etime
returns.
This routine is known from Cray Fortran.
CALL Second(Seconds)
Seconds: REAL(KIND=1)
; scalar; INTENT(OUT).
Intrinsic groups: unix
.
Description:
Returns the process' runtime in seconds in Seconds---the same value
as the UNIX function etime
returns.
This routine is known from Cray Fortran.
Short(A)
Short: INTEGER(KIND=6)
function.
A: INTEGER
; scalar; INTENT(IN).
Intrinsic groups: unix
.
Sign(A, B)
Sign: INTEGER
or REAL
function, the exact type being the result of cross-promoting the
types of all the arguments.
A: INTEGER
or REAL
; scalar; INTENT(IN).
B: INTEGER
or REAL
; scalar; INTENT(IN).
Intrinsic groups: (standard FORTRAN 77).
CALL Signal(Number, Handler)
Number: INTEGER
; scalar; INTENT(IN).
Handler: Signal handler (INTEGER FUNCTION
or SUBROUTINE
)
or dummy/global INTEGER(KIND=1)
scalar.
Intrinsic groups: unix
.
Description:
If Handler is a an EXTERNAL
routine, arranges for it to be
invoked with a single integer argument (of system-dependent length)
when signal Number occurs.
If Number is an integer it can be
used to turn off handling of signal Handler or revert to its default
action.
See signal(2)
.
Note that Handler will be called with C conventions, so its value in
Fortran terms is obtained by applying %loc
(or loc) to it.
Sin(X)
Sin: REAL
or COMPLEX
function, the exact type being that of argument X.
X: REAL
or COMPLEX
; scalar; INTENT(IN).
Intrinsic groups: (standard FORTRAN 77).
SinH(X)
SinH: REAL
function, the `KIND=' value of the type being that of argument X.
X: REAL
; scalar; INTENT(IN).
Intrinsic groups: (standard FORTRAN 77).
CALL Sleep(Seconds)
Seconds: INTEGER(KIND=1)
; scalar; INTENT(IN).
Intrinsic groups: unix
.
Description:
Causes the process to pause for Seconds seconds.
See sleep(2)
.
Sngl(A)
Sngl: REAL(KIND=1)
function.
A: REAL(KIND=2)
; scalar; INTENT(IN).
Intrinsic groups: (standard FORTRAN 77).
SqRt(X)
SqRt: REAL
or COMPLEX
function, the exact type being that of argument X.
X: REAL
or COMPLEX
; scalar; INTENT(IN).
Intrinsic groups: (standard FORTRAN 77).
CALL SRand(Seed)
Seed: INTEGER
; scalar; INTENT(IN).
Intrinsic groups: unix
.
Description:
Reinitialises the generator with the seed in Seed. See section IRand Intrinsic. See section Rand Intrinsic.
Stat(File, SArray)
Stat: INTEGER(KIND=1)
function.
File: CHARACTER
; scalar; INTENT(IN).
SArray: INTEGER(KIND=1)
; DIMENSION(13); INTENT(OUT).
Intrinsic groups: unix
.
Description:
Obtains data about the given File and places them in the array
SArray.
The values in this array are extracted from the
stat
structure as returned by fstat(2)
q.v., as follows:
Not all these elements are relevant on all systems. If an element is not relevant, it is returned as 0.
Returns 0 on success, otherwise an error number.
CALL SymLnk(Path1, Path2, Status)
Path1: CHARACTER
; scalar; INTENT(IN).
Path2: CHARACTER
; scalar; INTENT(IN).
Status: INTEGER
; OPTIONAL; scalar; INTENT(OUT).
Intrinsic groups: unix
.
Description:
Makes a symbolic link from Path1 to Path2.
If the
Status argument is supplied, it contains 0 on success or an error
code otherwise.
Available only on systems that support symbolic
links (see symlink(2)
).
CALL System(Command, Status)
Command: CHARACTER
; scalar; INTENT(IN).
Status: INTEGER(KIND=1)
; OPTIONAL; scalar; INTENT(IN).
Intrinsic groups: unix
.
Description:
Passes the command Command to a shell (see system(3)
).
If argument Status is present, it contains the value returned by
system(3)
, presumably 0 if the shell command succeeded.
Note that which shell is used to invoke the command is system-dependent
and environment-dependent.
CALL System_Clock(Count, Rate, Max)
Count: INTEGER(KIND=1)
; scalar; INTENT(OUT).
Rate: INTEGER(KIND=1)
; scalar; INTENT(OUT).
Max: INTEGER(KIND=1)
; scalar; INTENT(OUT).
Intrinsic groups: f90
.
Description:
Returns in Count the current value of the system clock; this is
the value returned by the UNIX function times(2)
in this implementation, but
isn't in general.
Rate is the number of clock ticks per second and
Max is the maximum value this can take, which isn't very useful
in this implementation since it's just the maximum C unsigned
int
value.
Tan(X)
Tan: REAL
function, the `KIND=' value of the type being that of argument X.
X: REAL
; scalar; INTENT(IN).
Intrinsic groups: (standard FORTRAN 77).
TanH(X)
TanH: REAL
function, the `KIND=' value of the type being that of argument X.
X: REAL
; scalar; INTENT(IN).
Intrinsic groups: (standard FORTRAN 77).
Time()
Time: INTEGER(KIND=2)
function.
Intrinsic groups: unix
.
Description:
Returns the current time encoded as an integer in the manner of
the UNIX function time(3)
.
This value is suitable for passing to CTIME
,
GMTIME
, and LTIME
.
TtyNam(Unit)
TtyNam: CHARACTER*(*)
function.
Unit: INTEGER
; scalar; INTENT(IN).
Intrinsic groups: unix
.
Description:
Returns the name of the terminal device open on logical unit Unit or a blank string if Unit is not connected to a terminal.
CALL UMask(Mask, Old)
Mask: INTEGER
; scalar; INTENT(IN).
Old: INTEGER
; OPTIONAL; scalar; INTENT(OUT).
Intrinsic groups: unix
.
Description:
Sets the file creation mask to Old and returns the old value in
argument Old if it is supplied.
See umask(2)
.
CALL Unlink(File, Status)
File: CHARACTER
; scalar; INTENT(IN).
Status: INTEGER(KIND=1)
; OPTIONAL; scalar; INTENT(OUT).
Intrinsic groups: unix
.
Description:
Unlink the file File.
If the Status argument is supplied, it
contains 0 on success or an error code otherwise.
See unlink(2)
.
XOr(I, J)
XOr: INTEGER
or LOGICAL
function, the exact type being the result of cross-promoting the
types of all the arguments.
I: INTEGER
or LOGICAL
; scalar; INTENT(IN).
J: INTEGER
or LOGICAL
; scalar; INTENT(IN).
Intrinsic groups: f2c
.
Description:
Returns value resulting from boolean exclusive-OR of pair of bits in each of I and J.
ZAbs(A)
ZAbs: REAL(KIND=2)
function.
A: COMPLEX(KIND=2)
; scalar; INTENT(IN).
Intrinsic groups: f2c
.
Description:
Archaic form of ABS()
that is specific
to one type for A.
See section Abs Intrinsic.
ZCos(X)
ZCos: COMPLEX(KIND=2)
function.
X: COMPLEX(KIND=2)
; scalar; INTENT(IN).
Intrinsic groups: f2c
.
ZExp(X)
ZExp: COMPLEX(KIND=2)
function.
X: COMPLEX(KIND=2)
; scalar; INTENT(IN).
Intrinsic groups: f2c
.
ZLog(X)
ZLog: COMPLEX(KIND=2)
function.
X: COMPLEX(KIND=2)
; scalar; INTENT(IN).
Intrinsic groups: f2c
.
Description:
Archaic form of LOG()
that is specific
to one type for X.
See section Log Intrinsic.
ZSin(X)
ZSin: COMPLEX(KIND=2)
function.
X: COMPLEX(KIND=2)
; scalar; INTENT(IN).
Intrinsic groups: f2c
.
ZSqRt(X)
ZSqRt: COMPLEX(KIND=2)
function.
X: COMPLEX(KIND=2)
; scalar; INTENT(IN).
Intrinsic groups: f2c
.
(The following information augments or overrides the information in Chapter 18 of ANSI X3.9-1978 FORTRAN 77 in specifying the GNU Fortran language. Chapter 18 of that document otherwise serves as the basis for the relevant aspects of GNU Fortran.)
Underscores (`_') are accepted in symbol names after the first character (which must be a letter).
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